Simplified Orange (Citrus spp.) Production Guide for Small-scale Farmers

Main Article Content

Hillary M. O. Otieno


Orange production provides both nutritional and financial benefits to farmers across Africa. However, these farmers do not realize the full benefits due to low yields caused by poor agronomic practices currently applied in the region. This guide, therefore, highlights key practices that farmers need to adopt for better yields. Farmers should always follow the best practices right from the selection of a variety to harvesting practices for high yield and better quality fruits to be achieved. Proper land preparation helps in early weed control and improves water infiltration and growth of roots. Weeds should always be kept below economic thresholds to ensure efficiencies in the use of water and nutrient. Like other plants, oranges require proper nutrition for growth and development of big fruits. Both manure and inorganic fertilizers should be applied depending on the availability and cost. Soil analysis helps in determining the rates of application. During production, farmers should scout for pests such as aphids, false codling moth, whiteflies, leaf miners, thrips, fruit fly and common spiral nematode and diseases like Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot, Phytophthora spp. and orange fruit scab which are common in the area. These pests cause significant yield losses if not timely controlled. When ready, harvesting of fruits should be careful and gentle without causing injuries.

Orange harvesting practices, soil fertility management, orange pests and diseases management, orange production, weed control in oranges.

Article Details

How to Cite
Otieno, H. M. O. (2020). Simplified Orange (Citrus spp.) Production Guide for Small-scale Farmers. Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, 5(1), 23-27.
Short communication


Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) Crop production statistics; 2019.

Sthapit BR, Rao VR, Sthapit S. Tropical fruit tree species and climate change. Bioversity International, New Delhi. 2012;137.

Mulumba LN, Lal R. (2008). Mulching effects on selected soil physical properties. Soil and Tillage Research. 2008;98(1): 106-111.

Robinson JBD, Hosegood PH. Effects of organic mulch on fertility of a latosolic coffee soil in Kenya. Experimental Agriculture. 1965;1(1):67-80.

FiBL. African organic agriculture training manual. Version 1.0. Edited by Gilles Weidmann and Lukas Kilcher. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Frick; 2011.

CABI. Citrus sinensis (navel orange): List of pests; 2019.

Otieno HM. Pesticide training tool: A simplified guide for Agricultural Extension Officers and Farmers. Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science. 2019;1-5.

Abobatta WF. Challenges for Citrus Production in Egypt. Acta Scientific Agriculture. 2018;2:40-41.

Abobatta W. Improving Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L) productivity in Delta Region, Egypt. Adv Agr Environ Sci. 2018;2(1):8-10.