Main Article Content
Annona muricata L. commonly known as soursop is an underutilized fruit crop species in Sri Lanka gaining much importance in the recent past due to its high nutritional and medicinal value. Soursop germplasm collections are available within the country and assessing the genetic diversity is needed to proceed with conservation, detecting promising lines and breeding programs. This study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of 50 soursop individuals using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. The study was conducted at Plant Genetic Resources Centre of the Department of Agriculture in Gannoruwa during 2017 to 2019. DNA of the 50 soursop samples were extracted using CTAB method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was carried using 13 Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers. PCR products were visualized using 1.5 percent Agarose gel electrophoresis under the Biorad Gel documentation system and analyzed using POPGENE 1.31. PCR amplified 139 bands from 13 ISSR markers among which 118 were found to be polymorphic. The polymorphic band percentage was 85 percent while as the average number of bands observed (Na) was 1.8489 and the effective allele number (Ne) was 1.5377. The Nei's gene diversity index (h) was 0.3079. The Shannon Information Index (I) found to be 0.4556. Dendrogram constructed based on the UPGMA method clustered the studied accessions into four major clusters at 80 percent similarity level. Results revealed considerable degree of genetic diversity existed within the studied soursop germplasms at Sri Lanka. Existing genetic diversity within soursop individuals will serve as germplasm bank to identify and utilize potential germplasm resources for conservation and future breeding programs to develop quality soursop varieties in Sri Lanka.
Badrie N, Schauss AG. Soursop (Annona muricata L.): Composition, nutritional value, medicinal uses and toxicology. Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health. In: Watson RR, Preedy VR (Eds.). Academic Press, Oxford. 2009;621–643.
Dahanayake N. Some neglected and underutilized fruit-crops in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2015;5(2): 2250-3153.
Padmini SMPC, Pushpakumara DKNG, Samarasekera R. Morphological variation in selected Annona muricata L. (Soursop) germplasm in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research. 2013;24:362-374. DOI: 10.4038/tar.v24i4.8021
Kim GS, Zeng L, Alali F, Rogers LL, Wu FE, McLaughlin JL. Muricoreacin and murihexocin C, mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, from the leaves of Annona muricata in honour of professor GH Neil Towers 75th Birthday. Phytochemistry. 1998;49:565–571. DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00172-1
Yu J, Gui H, Luo X, Sun L, Zhu P, Yu Z. Studies on the chemical constituents of Annona muricata. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1997;32:431–437.
Abbo ES, Olurin T, Odeyemi G. Studies on the storage stability of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) juice. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5:108-112.
Bianca W. Bertoni, Mariana P. de C. Telles, Milena G. Malosso, Simone C. Z. Torres, José O. Pereira, Mirian V. Lourenço, Suzelei de C. França, Ana M. S. Pereira. Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2010;33(3):532–538. DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572010005000068
Kumar Mukesh, Fougat Ranbir, Sharma Anil, Kulkarni Kalyani, Ramesh, Mistry Jigar, Sakure Amar, Kumar Sushil. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of selected species of Plantago with emphasis on Plantago ovata. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2014;8:1639–1647.
Gajera BB, Kumara N, Singha AS, Punvara BS, Ravikirana R, Subhasha N, Jadeja GC. Assessment of genetic diversity in castor (Ricinus communis L.) using RAPD and ISSR markers. Industrial Crops and Products. 2010;32:491–498. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.06.021
Welsh J, McClelland M. Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acids Research. 1990;18:7213–7218. DOI: 10.1093/nar/18.24.7213
Gwanama C, Labuschagne MT, Botha AM. Analysis of genetic variationin Cucurbita moschata by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Euphytica. 2000;113(1):19–24. DOI: 10.1023/a:1003936019095
Kapteyn J, Simon JE, Janick J, Whipkey A. The use of RAPDs for assessment of identity, diversity and quality of Echinacea. Trends in New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA. 2002;509–513.
Cong-Ying Yuan, Ping Wang, Pang-Pang Chen, Wen-Jun Xiao, Cheng Zhang, Shuai Hu, Ping Zhou, Hong-Ping Chang, Zhuang He, Rong Hu, Xiu-Tao Lu, Jia-Zhuo Ye, Xin-Hong Guo. Genetic diversity revealed by morphological traits and ISSR markers in 48 Okras (Abelmoschus escullentus L.). Physiologyand Molecular Biology Plants. 2015;3:359–364. DOI: 10.1007/s12298-015-0303-5
Zietkiewicz E, Rafalski A, Labuda D. Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification. Genomics. 1994;20(2):176-83. DOI: 10.1006/geno.1994.1151
Meloni Marilena. Genetic variation in five Mediterranean populations of Juniperus phoenicea as revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Annals of Botany. 2006;97(2):299-304. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcj024
Godwin ID, Aitken EA, Smith LW. Application of inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to plant genetics. Electrophoresis. 1997;18(9):1524-1528. DOI: 10.1002/elps.1150180906
Sarmiento L, Perez-Almeida L, Diaz B, Diaz B, Alvarez H, Viera W. Molecular marker based characterization of Ecuadorian dry forest tamarind plus trees. Bioagro. 2017;29(3):153-162.
Doyle JJ, Doyle JL. Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue. Focus. 1990;12(1):13-15.
Yeh FC, Yang RC, Boyle T. POPGENE Version 1.32: Microsoft window-based freeware for population genetics analysis. University of Alberta, Edmonton; 1999.
Sneath PHA, Sokal RR. Numerical taxonomy. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco; 1973.
Nei M, Li W. Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc Natl Acad Sci.1979;76:5269–5273.
Chesnokov YV, Artemyeva A. Evaluation of the measure of polymorphism information of genetic diversity. Agric Biol. 2015;50(5):571-578.
Van Zonneveld M, Scheldeman X, Escribano P, Viruel MA, Van Damme P, et al. Mapping genetic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(1):29845. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029845
Dansi A, Vodouhe R, Azokpota P, Yedomonhan H, Assogba P, Adjatin A, Loko YL, Dossou-Aminon I, Akpagana K. Diversity of the neglected and underutilized crop species of importance in Benin. The Scientific World Journal. 2012;932947:19. DOI: 10.1100/2012/932947
Dawson IK, Lengkeek A, Weber JC, Jamnadass R. Managing genetic variation in tropical trees; linking knowledge with action in agroforestry ecosystems for improved conservation and enhanced livelihoods. Biodiversity and Conservation. 2009;18:969-986.
Akcali Giachino RR. Investigation of the genetic variation of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) using RAPD and ISSR markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 2020;67:763-780. DOI: 10.1007/S10722-019-00861-Y
Raina SN, Rani V, Kojima T, Ogihara Y, Singh KP, Devarumath RM. RAPD and ISSR fingerprints as useful genetic markers for analysis of genetic diversity, varietal identification, and phylogenetic relationships in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivars and wild species. Genome. 2001;44(5):763–772.
Telles MPC, Valva FD, Bandeira LF, Coelho ASG. Characterizacao genetica de populacoes naturais de araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart.-Annonaceae) no Estado de Goias. Revista Brasileira de Botanica. 2003;26:123-129.
Duran C, Appleby N, Edwards D, Batley J. Molecular genetic marker: Discovery, applications, data storage and visualization. Current Bioinformatics. 2009;4:16-27.
Ronning CM, Schnell RJ, Gazit S. Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to identify annona cultivars. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 1995;120(5):726-729. DOI: 10.21273/JASHS.120.5.726
Bharad SG, Kulwal PL, Bagal SA. Genetic diversity study in Annona squamosa by morphological, biochemical and RAPD markers. Acta Horticulturae. 2009;839:615-623.
Ahmad I, Bhagat S, Sharma TVRS, Kumar K, Smachalam P, Srivastava RC. ISSR and RAPD marker based DNA fingerprinting and diversity assessment of Annona species in South Andamans. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 2010;67(2): 147-151.
Iqbal MJ, Aziz N, Saeed N, Zafar A, Malik Y. Genetic evaluation of some elite cotton varieties by RAPD analysis. Theor. Appl. Genet. 1997;94:139-44.
Escibano P, Viruel MA, Hormaza JI. Characterization and cross species amplification of microsatellite markers in cherimola Mill. Annonaceae. Mol. Ecol. Notes. 2011;4:746-48.
Cota LG, Vieira Fabio, Junior AF, Brandao Murilo, Santana KNO, Lisboa Guedes, Marcio Oliveira Dario. Genetic diversity of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae) in northern Minas Gerais state. Genetics and Molecular Research. 2011;10(3):2172-2180. DOI: 10.4238/vol10-3gmr1188
Upadhyay A, Jayadev K, Manimekalai R, Parthasarathy VA. Genetic relationship and diversity in Indian coconut accessions based on RAPD markers. Scientia Horticulturae. 2004;99(3-4):353-362. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4238(03)00103-1
Halewood Michael, Chiurugwi Tinashe, Hamilton Ruaraidh, Kurtz Brad, Marden Emily, Welch Eric, Michiels Frank, Mozafari Javad, Sabran Muhamad, Patron Nicola, Kersey Paul, Bastow Ruth, Dorius Shawn, Dias Sonia, McCouch Susan, Powell Wayne. Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture: Opportunities and challenges emerging from the science and information technology revolution. New Phytologist. 2018;217. DOI: 10.1111/nph.14993
Dawson IK, Vinceti B, Weber JC, Neufeldt H, Russell J, et al. Climate change and tree genetic resource management: Maintaining and enhancing the productivity and value of smallholder tropical agroforestry landscapes. A review. Agroforestry Systems. 2011;81:67-78.
Kumar M, Ponnuswami V, Rajamanickam C, Preethi T. Assessment of genetic diversity in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. SAARC Journal of Agriculture. 2015;13(1):27-36. DOI: 10.3329/sja.v13i1.24177
Thanachseyan P, Smarasinghe WLG, Thirukkumaran G. Diversity of Annona muricata L. through molecular characterization using SSR markers. International Journal of New Technology and Research. 2017;3(9):57-62.
Kojima T, Nagaoka T, Noda K, Ogihara Y. Genetic linkage map of ISSR and RAPD markers in Eincorn wheat in relation to that of RFLP markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 1998;96:37-45. DOI: 10.1007/s001220050706