Combating Flash Flood in Haor Areas: Strategic Adaptation towards Sustainable Crop Production

Main Article Content

Smita Dash Baishakhy
Mohammad Ashraful Islam
Md. Ruhul Amin
Fahmida Husain Choudhury


In Haor areas of Bangladesh agricultural activities are limited to four - five months of a year due to water logged condition and boro rice is the prominent crop grown within this short time span in dry season. But farmers often had to face almost total crop failure due to recurrent flash flood events. This paper attempts to evaluate Haor farmers’ adaptation through adopting strategies in securing boro rice from flash flood damage at pre-mature and mature stages. To reach this objective, a pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected 115 Haor farmers from February to May, 2020 while Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were also done as necessary during the research work. Results revealed that cultivation of short duration boro rice variety ranked top followed by practicing varietal diversification and early harvesting of rice (at 80% maturity) as the most significant adaptive strategies in securing boro rice. Obtained results also highlighted the possibilities of attaining desirable resilience through change in the adaptation behavior of Haor farmers’ if the identified farming practices are widely promoted and adopted. Hence, any development plans for Haor area should integrate local knowledge with modern strategies thus resulting a location specific sustainable flash flood adaptation policy.

Boro rice, adaptation, Haor, flash flood, sustainable farming.

Article Details

How to Cite
Baishakhy, S. D., Islam, M. A., Amin, M. R., & Choudhury, F. H. (2020). Combating Flash Flood in Haor Areas: Strategic Adaptation towards Sustainable Crop Production. Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, 7(1), 29-37.
Original Research Article


BBS. Statistical Year Book of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). Statistics & Informatics Division (SID), Ministry of Planning, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh; 2018.

Mohammad N. The Agricultural Governance in Bangladesh: A case study. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering. 2012;6(3):348-353.

CEGIS. Master plan of haor area, Bangladesh Haor and Wetland Development Board (BHWDB), summary report, volume II. Ministry of Water Resources, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh; 2012.

Huda MK. Experience with modern and hybrid rice varieties in haor ecosystem: Emerging Technologies for Sustainable Rice Production. In Twentieth national workshop on rice research and extension in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Rice Research Institute. Gazipur-1701. 2004;19-21.

Younus MAF. Autonomous crop adaptation processes to extreme floods: A case study in Bangladesh. In Water and climate: policy implementation challenges; Proceedings of the 2nd practical responses to climate change conference, Engineers Australia. 2012;124.

Rahman MA, Rahman S. Natural and traditional defense mechanisms to reduce climate risks in coastal zones of Bangladesh. Weather and Climate Extremes. 2015;7:84-95.

Kamruzzaman M, Shaw R. Flood and sustainable agriculture in the Haor basin of Bangladesh: A review paper. Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018; 6(1):40-49.

Alam MS, Quayum MA, Islam MA. Crop production in the Haor areas of Bangladesh: insights from farm level survey. The Agriculturists. 2010;8(2):88-97.

DDM Reports. Department of Disaster Management, Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh; 2017.

Pinaki R, Dwoha C, Mintu D. Havoc in Haor. The Daily Star; April 14, 2017.

Hassan AWR, Das AK. Social issues: occupation change and food security in Bangladesh. In Food Security and Risk Reduction in Bangladesh, Springer, Tokyo. 2015;53-63.

UNFCCC. Technologies for adaptation in the agricultural sector. TEC Brief #4. United Nations framework convention on climate change. Bonn, Germany; 2014.

Alauddin M, Sarker MAR. Climate change and farm-level adaptation decisions and strategies in drought-prone and groundwater-depleted areas of Bangladesh: an empirical investigation. Ecological Economics. 2014;106:204-213.

Islam ARMT, Shill BK, Salam R, Siddik MNA, Patwary MA. Insight into farmers’ agricultural adaptive strategy to climate change in northern Bangladesh. Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2020;1-26.

Hossain M, Deb U. Crop agriculture and agrarian reforms in Bangladesh: present status and future options. Sixth Five Year Plan of Bangladesh. 2011;1-24.

IFAD. Bangladesh Environmental and Climate Change Assessment Main Report. Asia and the Pacific Division Programme Management Department, Environment and Climate Division; 2018.

Masud MM, Azam MN, Mohiuddin M, Banna H, Akhtar R, Alam AF, Begum H. Adaptation barriers and strategies towards climate change: Challenges in the agricultural sector. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2017;156:698-706.

Ndamani F, Watanabe T. Farmers’ perceptions about adaptation practices to climate change and barriers to adaptation: A micro-level study in Ghana. Water. 2015; 7(9):4593-4604.

Farid KS, Tanny NZ, Sarma PK. Factors affecting adoption of improved farm practices by the farmers of Northern Bangladesh. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University. 2015;13(452-2016-35870):291-298.

Smit B, Wandel J. Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change. 2006;16(3):282-292.

Islam MA. Project Completion Report on Identification of Flashflood Coping Promising Crop Production Practices of the Haor Farmers. 2017;3-19.

Herath HML, Thirumarpan K. Climate change induced adaptation strategies by Paddy farmers: Special emphasis on socio economic insights. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2017;12(2).

The Daily Star. Yanmar harvester: a blessing for farmers. Star Business Report, the Daily Star; May 07, 2020.

Ali A. Boro Harvest: Labour crisis worries farmers. The Daily Star; April 12, 2020.

Hussain M. Fisheries statistics in Bangladesh: Issues, challenges and plan. Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Government of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh; 2016.

Khan MNH, Mia MY, Hossain MR. Impacts of flood on crop production in Haor areas of two Upazillas in Kishoregonj. Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources. 2012;5(1):193-198.

Huque KS, Saleque MDA, Khatun R. Commercial poultry production in Bangladesh. Published in Proceedings of 7th International show and seminar organized by World’s Poultry Science Association (WPSA), Bangladesh Branch; 2011.

Islam MM, Bhuiyan MNK, Harun MY. Development of value chain: An effective way of profitable duck farming in haor areas of Bangladesh. INFPD Good Practices of Family Poultry Production Note No, 4; 2012.

Salam MU, Hossain SMA, Kashem MA. Water management in winter rice through agronomic manipulations under highly flood-prone conditions in Bangladesh: A simulation study. In International Rice Research Conference on Fragile Lives in Fragile Ecosystems, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); 13-17 Feb, 1995.

LIFCHASA. Livelihood Improvement of Farming Community in Haor Area through System Approach Annual Report, Department of Agricultural Economics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh; 2010.

Shopan J, Bhuiya MSU, Kader MA, Hasan MK. The feasibility of crop diversification in rice based cropping systems in haor ecosystem. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University. 2012;10(2):211-216.