Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research https://journalajahr.com/index.php/AJAHR <p><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research (ISSN: 2581-4478)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="https://journalajahr.com/index.php/AJAHR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) on all aspects of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US contact@journalajahr.com (Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research) contact@journalajahr.com (Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research) Mon, 10 Jun 2024 12:27:31 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 In vivo Studies on the Effect of Warburgia ugandensis Crude Extracts Against Bacterial wilt in Tomato https://journalajahr.com/index.php/AJAHR/article/view/324 <p>Tomato plants are susceptible to <em>Ralstonia solanacearum</em>, a pathogen responsible for bacterial wilt, a severe soil-borne disease with no available cure. <em>Warburgia ugandensis</em> crude extract has shown biocontrol capabilities against pathogenic fungi and bacteria in animals, but data on its effectiveness in plants is limited. The current study was done to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of <em>W. ugandensis</em> crude extracts against <em>R. solanacearum</em> in tomato plants. <em>W. ugandensis </em>leaf and stem bark crude extracts were obtained using ethanol, methanol, hexane, and dichloromethane. The obtained crude extracts were tested against <em>R. solanacearum</em> in tomato at the greenhouse in triplicate. The data collected on bacterial wilt incidence, severity, stem diameter, height, and the number of branches and fruits set were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 5% significance level. Tukey’s test was employed to determine significant differences between means at the same significance level. Tomato plants established in soil inoculated with <em>R. solanacearum</em> and treated with dichloromethane crude extract of <em>W. ugandensis</em> stem bark showed no sign of bacterial wilt disease and were comparable to the positive control. Tomato plants established in soil inoculated with <em>R. solanacearum</em> but treated with <em>W. ugandensis</em> leaf ethanol crude extract had the highest average height of 62.50 cm which was similar to positive control. Tomato plants grown in <em>R. solanacearum</em>-inoculated soils and treated with methanol crude extracts from <em>W. ugandensis</em> stem bark produced a significantly higher average number of fruits, 22.00, compared to those treated with crude extracts from other solvents. The study proposed that <em>W. ugandensis</em> crude extract has the ability to be used as antibacterial biocontrol against <em>R. solanacearum</em>. Further research is important to determine the bioactive compounds against <em>R. solanacearum</em>.</p> Oliver Libese Lideke, Eric G. Mworia, Cynthia N. Mugo Mwenda Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajahr.com/index.php/AJAHR/article/view/324 Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Delving into Chemical Control Options for Bacterial Canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) in Tomatoes: An In-vitro Study https://journalajahr.com/index.php/AJAHR/article/view/325 <p>The 2022/2023 tomato crop witnessed the emergence of <em>Clavibacter michiganensis</em> subsp. <em>michiganensis</em> in a tomato field, leading to symptoms resembling bacterial canker. Identification of the suspected bacterium, <em>C</em>. <em>michiganensis </em>subsp. <em>michiganensis</em>, utilized specific primers (CMM5 and CMM6) for PCR reaction, resulting in a 614 bp fragment. Several fungicides and bactericides were tested for their ability to control bacterial growth in Petri dishes. Fungicides and bactericides that completely inhibit the bacterial growth in Petri dishes included benzalkonium chloride (250 mg a.i./L), copper oxychloride (1680 mg a.i./L with 1000 mg metallic copper/L), copper hydroxide (2764 mg a.i./L with 1800 mg metallic copper/L), fluazinam (500 µL a.i./L), difenoconazole + pidiflumetofen (200 + 120 µL a.i./L), cuprous oxide (1344 mg a.i./L with 1200 mg metallic copper /L), mancozeb + famoxadone (1000 + 100 mg a.i./L), mancozeb (4000 mg a.i./L) and metiram + pyraclostrobin (2200 + 200 mg a.i./L). The packaged dose of casugamycin (60 µL a.i./L) failed to completely inhibit <em>C</em>. <em>michiganensis</em> subsp. <em>michiganensis</em> growth, necessitating doses exceeding 140 µL a.i./L for complete inhibition. Only at a dosage of 140 µL a.i./L was there no observable growth on the Petri dish containing YDC. Label doses of casugamycin did not prevent the growth of any bacteria, albeit partially controlling <em>Clavibacter</em> and <em>Pectobacterium</em> populations. At the dose of 140 µL a.i./L, the sole bacterium that proliferated was <em>Xanthomonas hortorum </em>pv. <em>gardneri</em>. The other bacteria were included in this study focusing on <em>Clavibacter</em> solely to understand the effect of certain products on other important bacteria in tomato cultivation. The active ingredients, difenoconazole + pidiflumetofen (200 + 120 µL/L active ingredient) and fluazinam (500 µL/L active ingredient) effectively suppressed <em>C</em>. <em>michiganensis</em> subsp. <em>michiganensis</em> growth. The study indicates that various tested fungicides and bactericides were effective in curbing <em>C</em>. <em>michiganensis </em>subsp. <em>michiganensis</em> growth under laboratory conditions. Nonetheless, efficacy may fluctuate based on dose and specific product used. Further research, including field trials, is imperative to evaluate product efficacy under real-world conditions and devise comprehensive management strategies for tomato bacterial canker control.</p> Monteiro F. P., Valmorbida J., Mallmann G., Ogoshi C., Wamser A. F., Lins Jr J. C., Hahn L. Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajahr.com/index.php/AJAHR/article/view/325 Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Endogenous Soil Fertility to Update Fertilization of Maize (Zea mays L) Crops in the Savannah Region of Togo https://journalajahr.com/index.php/AJAHR/article/view/327 <p>The diagnosis of soil fertility is a prerequisite for the formulation of balanced and site-specific fertilizer recommendations. Macro elements (nitrogen – N, phosphorous – P and potassium – K) based nutrient omission trials were conducted in the districts of Oti, Tandjoare, Tone and Kpendjal of the Savannah region. The objective was to assess endogenous soil fertility under maize cropping to further develop updated site-specifique fertilization schemes for the crop. A total of twenty-five producers were selected in the region (eight in Tandjoare, seven in Tone, five in Oti and five in Kpendjal) for the study in a paticipatory approach. The approach was participatory in order to involve the end user in the exercise. A randomized complete block design was adopted with five fertilization treatments including N<sub>0</sub>P<sub>0</sub>K<sub>0</sub> (T<sub>1</sub>), N<sub>0</sub>P<sub>60</sub>K<sub>70</sub> (T<sub>2</sub>), N<sub>120</sub>P<sub>0</sub>K<sub>70</sub> (T<sub>3</sub>), N<sub>120</sub>P<sub>60</sub>K<sub>0</sub> (T<sub>4</sub>) and N<sub>120</sub>P<sub>60</sub>K<sub>70</sub> (T<sub>5</sub>) kg ha<sup>-1</sup> for the trial. The unit plot size was 100 m<sup>2</sup> (10 m x10 m).</p> <p>Grain yield, yield response to nutrients and Agronomic Efficiency (AE) were determined. Genstat Edition 12th was used to discriminate means.The average yields were 0.56, 0.83, 3.18, 3.44 and 4.57 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively for T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>5</sub> in Tandjoare, 0.32, 0.52, 1.06, 2.39 and 3.02 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively for T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>5</sub> in Tône, 1.01, 1.35, 2.56, 3.16 and 4.39 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively for T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>5</sub> in Oti and 0.39, 0.75, 1.54, 2.33 and 3.31 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively for T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>5</sub> in Kpendjal. The ranking of yield data by fertilizer treatment indicates that all three macronutrients (N, P and K) are required for maize production in the Savannah region, with a priority ranking of N&gt;P&gt;K. The results also showed that the best Agronomic Efficiency is obtained when all macronutrients are supplied in all four districts. The results of this diagnostic will be used as a basis for formulating balanced, site-specific fertilizer recommendations for intelligent, environmentally-friendly agriculture.</p> Mouhamadou Lare, Jean Mianikpo Sogbedji Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajahr.com/index.php/AJAHR/article/view/327 Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Production of Biofuels from Agricultural Waste https://journalajahr.com/index.php/AJAHR/article/view/328 <p>Agricultural waste represents a largely untapped resource that could be utilized for the production of biofuels through various conversion pathways. As the global demand for renewable and sustainable energy grows, biofuels offer solutions to mitigate climate change impacts while improving waste management. This review analyzes using agricultural residues and by-products as feedstocks for biofuel production through biological, thermochemical and chemical conversion processes. The different types of lignocellulosic biomass available from agricultural activities are discussed, along with their compositions. While agricultural waste has advantages like wide availability and low cost, challenges relating to heterogeneous composition, pre-existing contamination and seasonal availability must be addressed. Fermentation, anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis and gasification are examined as established routes for converting agricultural waste into liquid biofuels and biogas. Pretreatment methods, enzyme production pathways and synthesis of fuels like ethanol, butanol and diesel substitutes are outlined. Environmental benefits of biofuels from waste, including greenhouse gas mitigation and recycling of soil nutrients, are evaluated against fossil fuel alternatives. Case studies on operational plants and feasibility studies provide insights into technical and economic viability at scale. Challenges regarding feedstock logistics, conversion efficiency, commercial scale-up and sustainability assessment are identified for future research focus. In conclusion, the review finds that agricultural waste is a promising renewable resource for biofuel production when integrated with appropriate thermochemical, biochemical or anaerobic digestion technologies. While the field is advancing, further improvements in areas such as feedstock supply, pretreatment technologies, and demonstration of sustainability will be critical to realize the full potential of this emerging bioeconomy sector. The review recommends steps to accelerate commercialization and policy frameworks to incentivize waste-to-energy solutions.</p> Francis Mekunye, Peter Makinde Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajahr.com/index.php/AJAHR/article/view/328 Mon, 15 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000