Vitamin A deficiency is prevalent especially in sub-Saharan Africa because most available food contains negligible amounts of beta-carotene which fail to meet the physiological requirements resulting in the impairment by high rates of infection. However, introducing orange-fleshed sweet potato cultivar with high ß –carotene will help eradicate the problem of vitamin A deficiency, malnutrition and food insecurity in Iwo, Nigeria. Aim: Therefore, the primary goal of this project is to enhance food security and smallholder farmers’ income including women and young people in Iwo by introducing orange-fleshed sweet potato with high nutritional values. The varieties used were: Mother’s delight (V1), King J (V2), Iwo I (V3) and Iwo II (V4). The field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State from July to October 2017. Data were taken on leaf length, leaf breadth, petiole length, plant height and tuber yield (kg). V4 had the highest number of tubers per row (17) although, it was not statistically different (P<0.05) from V1 which gave the lowest number of tubers per row (14.25). V2 had the most extended petiole length of 32.06cm, and it was statistically different (P<0.01) from the remaining three potato varieties under evaluation. V3 was the highest yielding variety with a tuber yield of 2.93kg, but it was not statistically different (P<0.05) from V1 which had the lowest tuber yield (2.05kg). V1 (an orange-fleshed variety) had the relatively lowest number of tubers per row but gave tuber yields (2.05kg) comparable with the highest yielding variety (V3 = 2.93kg), which is a locally cultivated and adapted variety. It can be concluded that the introduced ranges were similar in performance to the adapted landraces. It is recommended that the introduced varieties (specifically V1, the orange-fleshed potato) be adopted by the farmers for cultivation as the performance of both introduced varieties was significantly compared with the landraces cultivated by Iwo farmers.
A field study was conducted to investigate the effects of corm size and planting date on flower, corm and cormel production of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus. A.) in sylhet. In this investigation three corm sizes viz., large (25+2 g), medium (15+2 g) and small (10+2 g) and two planting dates of 25 October and 25 November were included as treatments. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Results indicated that growth and yield of flower, corm and cormel production were largely affected by corm size and planting dates. Large corm with 25 October planting produced the tallest plant and higher number of leaves compared to the 25 November with medium and small corm. Large corm produced maximum flower, corm and cormels. In case of planting dates, 25 October planting required maximum days for spike to flower initiation (15.02), maximum rachis length (34.09 cm), highest number of floret spike-1 (9.77), maximum number of spike (907.16) decimal-1, maximum number of cormels (6271.43) decimal-1. On the other hand, maximum weight of single spike (53.29 g), maximum number of corm (1.65), maximum number of cormels (1117.09) decimal-1 was obtained from planting dates of 25 November. It was further noticed that interaction effect of corm size and planting dates were significant effects on rachis length (39 cm), floret length (10.25 cm), number of corm plant-1 (2.03), number of corm decimal-1 (1371.99) and weight of spike plant-1 (73.75 g) on 25 November planting with large corm. On the other hand, 25 October planting with large corm was significant in case of number of flower spikes plant-1 (1.77), number of flower spikes decimal-1 (1192.06), number of cormels plant-1 (10.67), number of cormels decimal-1 (7197.33), weight of corm (58 g) and weight of cormels (17.4 g) plant-1 and weight of corm (39.14 kg) and cormels (11.74 kg) decimal-1. Poor performances in respect of flower, corm and cormel production were observed in the plants grown from small corm and planted on 25 November.
Aims: The experiments were carried out o determine the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertiliser and soil types on the yield and yield component of maize plant in Yola.
Duration and Place of Study: Field experiments were conducted during 2010, 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola (Sandy-loam soil) and a private farm in Karewa area of Yola (Clay-loam soil).
Methodology: Treatments consisted of five levels of nitrogen fertiliser (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N/ha) applied as urea while phosphorus and potassium were maintained at 60 kg/ha each applied as single superphosphate and Muriate of potash on the sandy-loam and clay-loam soils. The experiments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. Parameters measured include number of ears/plant, length of ears, ear diameter, number of grains per year, the weight of 100 grains, the weight of grains/ear and total grain yield. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) appropriate to RCBD using statistical package SAS for Windows Release 9.2 and Least Significant Difference (LSD) method was used to compare the difference between means.
Results: Regarding ear diameter, 100-grain weight and total grain weight, there were significant influences of rates of nitrogen fertiliser and soil types. The yield of maize was significantly affected by rates of nitrogen fertiliser and soil types. The highest yield of 5,330.6 kg/ha was obtained with 160 kg N/ha.
Conclusion: Based on the finding of the study, applying the rate of 160 kg N/ha on sandy-loam soil appeared to be promising for improved yield of maize in Yola and is, therefore, recommended to farmers in Yola.
This study assessed enterprise characteristics and gender involvement in rice enterprises in south-western Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedures were employed for the study. The respondents were stratified by age and gender into adult male, adult female, young male and young female. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to gather data for the study. The results of the study show that larger farm sizes and production activities mostly associated with male respondents; greater sales especially by adult respondents; high dependence on personal savings for credit and use of both self and hired labour and rented land across gender categories, characterised the rice enterprises surveyed in south-western Nigeria. The Chi-square analysis of enterprise characteristics and involvement in the rice enterprises confirmed the statistical significance of type of enterprise (production), type of enterprise (marketing) and land acquisition, while correlation analysis affirms the significance of years of farming experience. The regression analysis shows that types of enterprise - production, processing and marketing are significant enterprise factors influencing involvement in the rice enterprises.
Organic farming is not a recent origin in India. In ancient literature such as Rig-Veda, the use of animal dung as manure was highly emphasized. Approximately two-thirds of a million of the farmer populations in India are cultivating organically, but this a tiny portion of the farming community. As there are few states that have not done much development in organic farming like Jharkhand which became independent as a separate state 16 years ago. Approximately 0.08% of Jharkhand’s cultivatable land is being promoted to be free from chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Out of the net cultivated area of 31 lakh hectare (ha), only 26,310 ha is the area where organic cultivation is promoted. When we compare it with the states like Sikkim and Meghalaya, which have been or will be certified organic state by 2020, we get the real picture of farmers who are lagging behind. Lack of certification, lengthy procedure and low production initially are some of the reasons because of which farmers don’t opt for organic agriculture. Initiatives like Public Private Partnership, promoting animal husbandry, Contract Organic farming (COF), Participatory Guarantee System (PGS), Farmer Producer Organisation (FPO) and raising public awareness are some steps that are required to develop organic agriculture, to improve human health and to save the environment.