Peppers are important sources of digestible carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. These crops are highly perishable and high postharvest losses often result if handled poorly or stored in unfavorable conditions. This study is to assess how the period of storage actually affects the properties of the fresh pepper and to obtain the optimum period that they can be stored without losing their essential properties. An alternative non-refrigerated storage that can potentially maintain quality longer is the use of evaporative coolers. In this study, the effects of evaporative cooling system lower temperature (28.31±3.85°C, 83.84±9.33% RH) on the proximate analysis of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum genus and Capsicum chinense) were evaluated. The evaporative cooler was stored under ambient condition (33.21±1.67°C, 68±3.78% RH). This experiment was carried out in Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria between November and December. The samples of three species of pepper used for this study were washed with distilled water and treated with 200ppm hydrochloride, allowed to drained and stored in basket wrapped with polythene and foam (evaporative cooler) for 21 days, during which tests carried out to quantify some nutritional parameters of moisture, ash, protein, lipid, carbohydrate and crude fiber contents were assessed, 7days interval. The sack wall of evaporative cooler was constantly wet with water. The study revealed that, there were continuous decrease in the quality parameters as the days increasing, such as moisture content dropped from 6.55 to 3.70 for Capsicum annuum, 5.58 to3.60 for Capsicum genus and 5.54 to 3.56 for Capsicum chinense. Ash content dropped from 4.38 to 2.40, 4.00 to 2.70 and 4.13 to 2.60 respectively. Carbohydrate content dropped from 63.22 to 43.98, 61.15 to 41.30 and 60.00 to 43.22 respectively. Protein content dropped from 11.33 to 8.30, 11.26 to 8.10 and 11.29 to 8.90 for respectively. Crude fiber content dropped from 2.10 to1.40, 2.08 to1.29 and 2.24 to 1.70 respectively. These findings we observed that, the three species of pepper contains large amount of nutrients; however, it was also suggested that fresh peppers should not exceed 14 days in storage, in other not to lose substantial part of the nutrients.
An experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Farm, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University (HSTU), Dinajpur, Bangladesh to find out the effects of mulch and different manures and fertilizers on the yield components and quality of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Twelve treatment combinations were evaluated in two factors Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different doses of manures and fertilizers viz. F0 = Control, F1 = Cowdung (CD) @ 10 t ha-1, F2 = Mustard Oil Cake (MOC) @ 0.25 t ha-1, F3 = Cowdung (CD) @ 5.0 t ha-1 + Mustard Oil Cake (MOC) @ 0.125 t ha-1, F4 = Urea @ 326.08 kg ha-1 + Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) @ 93.75 kg ha-1 + Muriate of Potash (MoP) @ 200 kg ha-1 and F5 = Cowdung (CD) @ 5 t ha-1 + Urea @ 163.04 kg ha-1 + Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) @ 46.87 kg ha-1 + Muriate of Potash (MoP) @ 100 kg ha-1 were applied under mulched (M1) and non-mulched (M0) conditions. Results from our study revealed that maximum fresh weight (3.57 kg plot-1), individual root weight (101.90 g), root length (14.64 cm), root diameter (3.27 cm), total yield (23.78 t ha-1), marketable yield (20.53 t ha-1) and beta-carotene content (8.78 mg 100-1 g) were recorded from F5 treatment. The mulching also had a significantly positive effect on maximizing the root yield components as well as beta-carotene contents over non-mulched treatment. On the other hand, the interaction effect of M1F5 performed superior in producing yield components and beta-carotene content of root compared to other combinations. The highest marketable yield (25.10 t ha-1) along with best economic gross return (TK. 2,47,167 ha-1) and the benefit-cost ratio (2.91) were also noted from M1F5. It was concluded that organic and inorganic sources of nutrients along with mulch effectively increase the carrot yield than the sole application of higher doses of manures and fertilizers.
A comparative metabolic profiling of healthy and pest infested Solanum melongena (egg plant) have been carried out. The egg plant was infested by Helicoverpa armigera. Total thirty non polar metabolites were detected from the leaf and stems extract, by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) technique, which includes large variety of compounds like phytosterols, diterpene, alkane hydrocabon, n-alkanoic acid and terpene etc. Significant variation on metabolites has been detected in both leaf and stem extract. Metabolites such as benzoic acid (9.13±0.71%), pentadecane (2.83±0.13%), hexadecane (1.68±0.09%), squalene (1.28±0.08%), triterpene (3.97±0.14%), linoleic acid (1.32±0.06%), linolenic acid (2.46±0.14%), stearic acid (4.69±0.38%), dodecanoic acid (0.83±0.10%), myristic acid (1.25±0.05%), palmitic acid (1.32±0.06%), linoleic acid (3.33± 0.13%), linolenic acid (2.06±0.14%), stearic acid (4.83±0.14%), lactic acid (0.50±0.09%), tetradecene (0.93±0.07%), hexadecane (1.30±0.06%), octadecane (1.19±0.05%), cholesterol (0.48 ±0.05%), stigmasterol (0.57±0.06%), (octadecene 6.90±1.58%) and tetradecane (0.84±0.10%) were detected. Alteration in amount of above major metabolites was observed under biotic stress condition. It concludes that, these metabolites might have played an important role in pest infested stress tolerance. This study will be helpful for the better understanding of overall biotic stress tolerance mechanism.
Natural abundance and host plant preference of the endoparasitoids O. pallipes was studied in Ojelat region. Four host plants were studied [tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) pepper (Capsicum annuum) eggplant (Solanum melongena) and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)] The parasitoids showed high populations in April and May that kept the populations of the serpentine leafminer L. trifolii at low densities till the end of the season on all studied host plants. O. pallipes recorded two peaks of abundance on the four studied host plants recording (19, and 24 individuals/ 50 infested leaflets) on tomatoes, (18, and 16 individuals/ 50 infested leaflets) on pepper, (26 and 20 individuals/ 50 infested leaflets) on eggplant and (32, 26 individuals/ 50 infested leaflets) on kidney bean during the season of the study. O. pallipes showed a relatively low preference towards kidney bean and eggplant compared with pepper and tomatoes.
Nigeria is the largest producer of tomato in Africa while the Northern regions are the main producers of tomatoes in the country. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is widely cultivated and consumed in every part of Nigeria. It is an important commercial crop and good source of vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, sugar and dietary fibers. The study aimed to report the outbreak of Tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta) in tomato growing regions of Nigeria with a view to bring out its management strategies in Nigeria. The study was conducted in the major tomato producing regions which lies between latitudes 7.5°11´ and 13.0°N and a temperature range of 22 - 30°C. Tuta absoluta has been attributed to causing tomato shortage in Nigeria as a result of its devastating attack. The outbreak caused critical reduction in fruit yield which resulted in high cost of tomato. The damage is done by the larvae which tunnel into the stems, apical buds as well as the green and ripe fruits reducing their quality and subsequently the yields. Nonetheless, about 80 -100% yield loss had been reported. Tuta absoluta was reported to have developed resistance to a number of pesticides used in the country. Meanwhile, the Government had either less concern or neglect on the pest invasion or areas of researches especially on invasive species, thus poor funding which overstresses the existing challenges in controlling the pest. This paper intends to review some important highlights of Integrated Pest management (IPM) approaches for effective and efficient management strategies of the pest in Nigeria and beyond.