Aims: Evaluate the responses of five jojoba genotypes to in vitro nodal segments and shoot tip culture under different growth regulators combinations.
Study Design: Comparative evaluation between vegetative and in vitro propagation of jojoba genotype.
Place and Duration: The study was carried out in tissue culture lab of fruit breeding department during 2015.
Methodology: Five selected elite genotypes of jojoba symbolled by ‘C10, C16, C18, C19 and C21’, and cultivated in the Cairo-Alexandria desert road were propagated asexually via cutting and in vitro culture technique. Two types of explants were tested; shoot tips of two months age with 0.5 to 1 cm length and semi- hard nodal segment of six months age was divided into parts with 1 to 4 cm containing from 1-2 buds after removing whole leaves except small portion to determine cutting side cultivation.
Results: Explants taking time has a great effect on jojoba plant proliferation, it was noticed that the best time for taking explants begin from the mid of March to mid of April; moreover, type of tested explants revealed different response towards proliferation. Concentrations of different growth regulators played an important role on growth and proliferation of jojoba genotypes. It was clear that combination of BA+NAA (3 mgL-1 and 0.5 mg L-1 respectively) showed highest rate of multiplication in respect to shoot number, shoot length and leaves number. Regarding rooting, proliferated plants failed to initiate roots when different types of hormones (BAP, TDZ and NAA) with different concentration (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/L) were tested. However, the tested genotypes failed to initiate any roots. On the other hand, propagation via stem cutting treated with IBA at 1500, 2500 and 3000 ppm; from these concentrations, only 3000 ppm success to initiate roots. It was clear that by increase the rooting percentage the survival percentage increase.
Conclusion: Propagation via stem cutting treated with IBA at 1500, 2500 and 3000 ppm proved that 3000 ppm concentration was the best method for obtaining the highest percentage of rooting in semi-hard wood cuttings of jojoba plants using medium comprising of peat moss, perlite and vermiculite with ratio (1:1:1); however, it is difficult to initiate roots via in vitro culture technique.
Yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. Flavicarpa) is gaining a wide adoption in Kenya, emerging as an important high market value horticultural crop. However, its current yields levels are low due to poor agronomic practices. This study aimed at evaluating the orchard management practices for sweet yellow passion fruits by farmers, with a special focus on canopy management. A survey was conducted on sweet yellow passion fruit in Embu East sub- county, Kenya from June 2016 to august 2016. The sweet yellow passion fruit farmers were randomly sampled using a stratified sampling procedure. Personal interviews with the farmers were conducted in each household using structured and semi- structured questionnaires. The data was analysed using SPSS version 20. Correlation between pruning intensity and dieback disease incidence was analysed using Pearson’s correlation model. Findings from the study showed that pruning intensity among farmers varied from very low, moderate to very high. The results showed that 9.8% of farmers pruned moderately, 58.8% of farmers pruned with a low pruning intensity and 29.4% of farmers pruned with a very low pruning intensity. Pruning intensity was negatively correlated (-0.265) to dieback incidence at 0.05% level of significance at a p value of 0.040 the results imply that most farmers pruned the vines at low intensity with the aim of retaining more vines. However, this resulted to more incidence of the dieback disease. The farmers require effective training skills on vine pruning to provide an appropriate canopy size which would improve the productivity of sweet yellow passion fruits.
Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the performance and nutritional quality of roselle and jute mallow under organic soil amendments (composts).
Study Design: The experiments were conducted in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted at the CSIR – SARI upland field, Changnaayili near Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana during the rainy season (from June to October) in 2014 and 2015.
Methodology: The composts used were Decentralized Company (DeCo) compost, Accra Compost and Recycling Plant (ACARP) compost and Composted Deep Litter Chicken Manure (CDLCM) applied onto prepared raised beds. The composts were incorporated into the beds at a rate of 10 t / ha two weeks before seedlings of roselle, and jute mallow were transplanted onto the prepared beds. Plant height, numbers of leaves per plant and leaf yield were taken for both vegetables. Protein, moisture and ash contents were also determined by proximate analysis.
Results: For both crops, significant differences (p = 0.05) in plant height and number of leaves were recorded at 8 weeks after transplanting. Cumulative leaf yield was significantly (p = 0.05) different between CDLCM, DeCo, ACARP composts and the control plot. Proximate analysis of leaf samples of the roselle and jute mallow showed that percent moisture and ash content were not affected significantly (p = 0.05) by the application of compost. However, percent protein in the roselle varied significantly (p = 0.05) with highest (29.2%) in the control followed by ACARP compost (28.6%), CDLCM (27.6%) and DeCo compost (26.4%).
Conclusion: Application of organic soil amendment resulted in improved agronomic and yield parameters of roselle and jute mallow. However, their application did not have much effect on the nutritional status of both crops except on protein in roselle.
Bacterial diseases are the important disease next to the fungal diseases in Nepal. In Nepal, major bacterial diseases are Bacterial leaf blight of rice (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae), Bacterial wilt of potato and tomato (Ralstonia solanacearum), Citrus greening (Candiditus liberibacter), Citrus canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri), Soft rot of potato (Erwinia carotovora pv. atroseptica) and Black rot of crucifers (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris) as they are prevailed in most of areas and cause the devastating losses. Others are the minor diseases with less economic importance which includes Bacterial stalk of maize (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae), bacterial postulates of soybean (Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli), Potato scab (Steptomyces scabies). Some of the minor diseases like Stewart’s wilt of corn (Pantoea stewartii), Bacterial speck of tomato (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato), Bacterial spot of tomato (Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria), Bacterial sheath rot of wheat (Pseudomonas fuscovagitlcae), Crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens), Bacterial leaf strip (Xanthomonas rubrilineans) and Bacterial spots of pumpkin (Xanthomonas cucurbitae) are recorded in Nepal.
Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate Super parasitism behavior of the larval pupal endoparasitoid O. pallipes in the field on two leaf mining insect hosts L. trifolii and L. bryoniae in Alojelat region during the winter growing season 2016/2017 using Broad bean (Vecia faba), as a host plant.
Methods: Broad bean (Vecia faba), was targeted as a host plant because it has a heavy infestation by the two leaf mining insects combined with a good population of O. pallipes. 100 parasitized larvae were collected. Larvae were checked and the number of the parasitoid immature stages were counted. Solitary parasitized and supper parasitized larvae were counted for the two insect hosts.
Results: Super parasitism caused by O. pallipes females on L. trifolii recorded high numbers during December and April and reached its peak on December 31th recording (36 superparasitized larvae/100 parasitized ones), while the host population recorded (136 L. trifolii larvae/100 leaflets) at the same time. Super parasitism decreased to its lowest number on March 4th recording (6 super parasitized larvae/100 parasitized ones) where the host population recorded (251 larvae/ 100 leaflets) at the same time. While, super parasitism caused by O. pallipes females on L. bryoniae recorded high numbers during December and April and reached its peak at December 17th recording (27 super parasitized larvae/100 parasitized ones), while the host population was (73 larvae/100 leaflets), The lowest number of super parasitism was observed on March 11th (4.0 super parasitized larvae/100 parasitized ones) when the host population was (142 larvae/100 leaflets) at the same time.
Conclusion:O. pallipes females reached its highest numbers at the low population levels of the insect host on either L. trifolii or L. bryoniae with low preference towards L. trifolii so, super parasitism by O. pallipes recorded slightly high numbers on L. trifolii larvae compared with L. bryoniae.