Open Access Short Research Article

Household Expenditure on Traditional African Vegetables: A Tobit Model

Johnson James Kimambo

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAHR/2018/44466

Aims: Tanzania is among countries of Sub-Saharan Africa that the effects of malnutrition as result of poor dietary diversity have been witnessed. Traditional African vegetables have proved valuable in providing important nutrients as well as for income generation. This study aims at assessing household expenditure on traditional African vegetables.

Study Design: Cross-sectional design was adopted during the study.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out in Arumeru District, Arusha Region, Tanzania from January to November 2015.

Methodology: Study area was selected purposively to represent traditional African vegetables producing households where the VINESA-AVRDC project was being implemented. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to 262 households.

Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation; and Tobit model was used during analysis of data. Tobit model results indicate that sex, marital status, education, distance to the market, nutritional knowledge, frequency intake, culture/ food taboos and price affordability had significant effect toward household expenditure on traditional African vegetable (TAV). Size of the household, yearly household income and occupation of the respondent were assumed to influence household expenditure, surprisingly, they were not.

Conclusion: These results suggests that intake of TAVs can be enhanced by increasing household expenditure for traditional African vegetables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rooting Response of Thuja occidentalis L. to Different Soilless Media and Stem Propagation Techniques in Ghana

Desma D. D. Soga, Irene A. Idun, Laura Atuah

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAHR/2018/44570

Aims: Studies were carried out to ascertain a suitable soilless medium which would enhance root development in Thuja occidentalis using stem cuttings and air-layered propagules.

Economically, the demand for these ornamentals necessitates that the difficult-to-root phenomenon should be solved.

Study Design:  A 2 x 6 factorial in a randomised complete block design replicated three times was the experimental design used for the stem cutting experiment. While a complete randomised design with 6 treatments which were replicated three times used for the air-layering experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Horticulture, KNUST, Ghana, between June 2009 and August, 2009.

Methodology: In the stem cutting propagation experiment, six media types; 100% topsoil, 100% palm-mix, a mix of 50% teak sawdust and 50% coconut coir, a mix of 50% palm-mix and 50% coconut coir, a mix of 50% palm-mix and 50% teak sawdust and a mix of 50% palm-mix, 25% teak sawdust and 25% coconut coir and two stem cuttings being straight and heel stems giving twelve (12) treatment combinations was used and replicated three (3) times. For the air-layering experiment, air-layers were made on the selected branches of the plant. Different media were colour-tagged.

Results: Results from the study showed that, a mix of 50% teak sawdust and 50% coconut coir was the most suitable soilless medium, with regards to its physico-chemical properties, and promoted the highest number of rooting. With respect to the root length, the mix of 50% palm-mix and 50% coconut coir recorded the longest root. The best soilless medium that promoted rooting in the air-layered propagule was a mix of 50% palm-mix and 50% teak sawdust.

Conclusion: Thus for propagation works in Ghana, the 50% teak sawdust+50% coconut coir and 50% palmix + 50% coconut coir and their variations be experimented on other difficult-to-root ornamental plants to validate its use as the best soilless medium for most difficult-to-root ornamental plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Nitrogen Application Timing and Boron-Zinc Spray on "Fuerte" Avocado

R. G. Stino, I. E. El-Shenawy, H. A. Abdel-Kareem, A. E. Rania

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJAHR/2018/44460

This study was carried out throughout two successive seasons of 2015 and 2016 at Horticulture Research Station at El-Kanater El-Khayria, Qalyubeia Governorate on 20-year-old avocado trees (Persea americanaMill.) "Fuerte" cultivar grafted on Dayouk rootstock and irrigated through farrow (surface) irrigation system. In this sequence (N1) as the control or untreated trees and other trees were treated with four treatments of different addition times of nitrogen soil fertilization (N2, N3, N4, and N5) all only once and once with boron and zinc as foliar spraying in concentrations (1, 2 and 3 g/L) beside combination between them. Nitrogen fertilization rated 1200 g /tree in 3 times as (NH4No3) 33. 5%. Boron was used as sulaphate boron (17, 5%) and zinc was used as sulphate zinc (34%) where each treatment was sprayed independently or in combination three times during (October, January, April). Pollen germination, fruit set as well as yield, fruit weight, flesh weight, oil content percentage and vitamin C were determined to assess the effect of the treatments. The obtained results showed that nitrogen soil application time and boron and zinc foliar spraying were significantly affected on improving all the tested parameters compared with control trees. The study also showed that, nitrogen soil application time N2 with boron and zinc combination at 1g/L/tree was more effective than the other treatments and gave significantly the highest values in comparison of other tested treatments in both seasons of study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Virulence of a New Isolate of Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus against the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Curculionidae)

Y. A. Mahmoud, H. S. Salama, S. M. Moawed, I. M. A. Ebadah, H. E. Sadek, I. A. Khalifa

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAHR/2018/44385

The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) is a serious pest of date palms and causes substantial losses worldwide. Due to its hidden nature of habitat, managing this pest is extremely difficult. This study reveals a new biological control agent that is beneficial for controlling this pest. In the laboratory, the virus was isolated from a colony of diseased larvae; the median lethal dose (LD50) and median lethal time (LT50) of this virus were determined, and the biological activities of the virus were assessed. Microscopic examination of the diseased larvae provided an evidence of the presence of polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIBs) in all typical tissues where the virus is known to develop. Electron microscopic examination revealed various shapes of polyhedra, most of which were hexagonal and tetragonal. Experiments were conducted to investigate viral propagation and virulence against different larval instars. The results showed that the initial infected dose (5×10PIB/larva) increased to 600×10PIB/larva. The LT50values decreased as both viral concentration and larval age increased. Moreover, the percentage of larval mortality significantly increased as larval age increased. It can be concluded that a viral dose of 80×106PIB/ml is sufficient and adequate for suppressing weevil population.

Open Access Short communication

A Modified Approach in Substrate Preparation Technique for Small Scale Oyster Mushroom Farming

Siddhant ., O. P. Ukaogo, S. S. Walakulu Gamage

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJAHR/2018/44907

Aims: Cultivation of oyster mushrooms has increased vastly in a global scale during last few decades. Contaminants and indigenous microflora present in the substrate may led to the low productivity of mushrooms. Keeping this in mind, the present study was under-taken with slight modification in substrate preparation technique to eliminate dust particles from the substrate and to assure contamination free mushroom production.

Study Design: Comparative evaluation between modified approach and control beds.

Place and Duration: The study was carried out in Shri Laxman Prasad Pyare Lal Agro Products, Ayodhya during 2017.

Methodology: The wheat straw substrate was immersed in the drum containing tap water, mixing properly and allowed to stand for 10-15 min to settle down the dust particle in the bottom of the drum. After that, the floating substrate was transferred to the slant surface so that the extra water was decanted off. This substrate was put in to the steam sterilised gunny bag and steeped in the chemical solution consisting of Formaldehyde (500 ppm) and Bovistin (75 ppm) for 18 h.  For the control, fresh wheat straw was put in to the steam sterilised gunny bag and steeped directly in the chemical solution as suggested above. After removal of excess water, the substrate was used for spawning with inoculums of Pleurotus sajor-caju, Strain- Malaysia.

Results: Beds with modified approach showed a complete absence of contaminants during entire crop cycle which showed the effectiveness of modified method while beds treated as control showed little incidence of various contaminants viz., Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatusCurvularia sp., Penicillium sp., and Rhizopus stolonifer with 6.67-20.00 percent incidence.

Conclusion: The results revealed that modified method should be considered to contamination free mushroom production.