Mandarin, as an important fruit crop of Nepal, has an enormous scope of increasing production and productivity by adopting better varieties. A study on varietal selection and evaluation has been underway at National Citrus Research Programme since 2005/06. Seventeen mandarin genotypes of exotic and local origin have been evaluated in the study. This paper describes the growth and fruit physio-chemical characteristics of mandarin genotypes, observed during 2014/15 in their 10-years age. The results revealed that the plant growth for height, canopy spread and basal girth were observed at a range of 137.5 to 295.0 cm; 103.8 to 205.0 cm; and 11.8 to 22.0 cm respectively. The Local genotypes: Banskharka and Sikkime showed the highest plant growth for plant height, while exotic genotypes exhibited wide canopy growth and basal girth. The average fruit number per plant were observed at a range of 16.7 to 151.3 fruits plant-1, while the fruit weight ranged from 60.0 to 133.9 g. The higher fruit number, weight and yield were observed at some exotic genotypes such as Miyagawa Wase, Fortune, Comunes Avana and Mino. Miyagawa Wase and Okitsu Wase satsuma mandarin genotypes were found extra earlier for fruit maturity as they were ready to harvest from early September. The better fruit size and segment weight were found again at Miyagawa Wase, Ponkan and Fortune, including Sikkime Local genotype. Moreover, the juice contents were varied from 34.24 to 55.28% among the genotypes. The higher juice content was observed at Miyagawa Wase, Fortune, Mino, Nova and Khoku Local genotypes. The fruit qualities such as TSS and TA were ranged respectively at 7.00 to 12.15 °Brix and 1.06 to 2.33%. The Local genotypes including Khoku, Sikkime and Banskharka showed the higher TSS and higher TSS/TA ratio. However, Ponkan, Fortune and Nova exhibited better fruit quality with higher TSS and TSS/TA ratio. Therefore, Miyagawa Wase, Fortune, Ponkan, Comunes, Mino, Nova, including local genotypes seems of having good characteristics in all respects for further variety improvement and selection in the future. Moreover, Miyagawa Wase and Okitsu Wase were found potential for early production.
The study was conducted at the Department of Crop and Environmental Protection Laboratory University of Agriculture Makurdi to compare the nematicidal activity of 3 different plant leaf and seed extracts from Ricinus communis, Jatropha curcas and Moringa oleifera Lam on egg-hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality in vitro. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomised Design (CBD) with a 3x7x3 factorial arrangement replicated three times. Aqueous extracts from leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis (15 g/100ml) were further diluted into 10, 20 and 30% V/V respectively. A 10ml aliquot of aqueous extract dilutions (10, 20 and 30%V/V) was introduced into Petri dishes containing 50 and 100 fresh egg- masses and juveniles of M. incognita, respectively. Egg masses and second stage juveniles were exposed to the concentrations of the aqueous leaf and seed extracts for 24, 48 and 72hrs. The results show that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the various exposure time on eggs-hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality. The Highest number of eggs-hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality were recorded at 72 >48>24 hours. There was also a significant difference (P<0.05) between the different concentrations used on percentage egg-hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality. 10% v/v concentration recorded the least percentage mortality while 30% v/v concentration recorded higher egg-hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the different leaf and seed extracts as all botanicals had an effect on egg-hatch and juvenile mortality. However, all untreated control recorded (0%) egg-hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality. The study showed that leaf and seed extracts of Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis, decreased egg hatch and increased juvenile mortality. The study also revealed that egg hatch and juvenile mortality were dependent on the time of exposure and concentration of the extracts.
Cocoa from Ghana is of premium quality but non-recommended farmer practices could impact negatively on the quality of cocoa beans. Therefore, this study sought to determine the effect of some agricultural practices that could affect the quality of cocoa beans from four districts in two ecological zones. Treatments included samples of cocoa beans from the two ecological zones produced using either recommended or non-recommended practice. Offinso and Tepa in the Ashanti region as well as Goaso and Sankore districts in Brong Ahafo region were purposively selected from each of the ecological zones for more accurate results. The study was both field survey and laboratory work. The survey involved the use of structured questionnaire to obtain primary data from the farmers and purchasing clerks. The laboratory work was a 4×3 factorial experiment in completely randomized design with three replications. Results from the survey were analysed with SPSS and showed that majority of the farmers practiced harvesting at correct interval, fermentation, drying, disease and pest control which affected the quality of cocoa beans. However, majority of farmers did not practice pruning, fertilisation, proper storage, hence affecting quality. The laboratory results indicated that practices in Offinso and Tepa in the Forest Transition Zone of Ashanti Region had significantly (P≤ 0.05) better influence on the physical, chemical, and microbial quality of cocoa beans than Goaso and Sankore in the Deciduous Forest Zone of Brong Ahafo region. Also, there were significant differences (P≤ 0.05) in the four districts for percentage mouldy beans, slaty, pH, fat content, mould count and faecal coliform. Moreover, recommended farmer practices had a significant effect on the final quality of beans than non-recommended farmer practices at the various districts. It is, therefore, concluded that fermentation, drying, harvesting and Disease and pest control, which were the key practices, significantly influenced the physical, chemical and microbial quality of cocoa beans irrespective of the ecological zones.
The present study was carried out during two successive seasons (2016 and 2017) at El-Frafra Oasis District, Egypt. Female ‘Sewi’ date palms of healthy, nearly homogenous in growth, as well as fruiting ability, were selected. The selected palms were pruned after harvesting and leaf bunch ratio was adjusted to 8 leaves per bunch during both seasons of study. The effect number of bunch per palm (8, 10 or 12) and thinning % by cutting out a number of strands from the centre of the bunch enough to remove about (0, 10, 20 and 30%) and their combinations were investigated. Anyhow, the influence was evaluated through the response of the different (productivity, fruit physical and chemical properties) to the specific and interaction effects of both investigated factors. The obtained results revealed the greatest fruit weight per bunch was always in significant concomitant to 8 bunches per palm +zero thinning % during both seasons. Moreover, the highest fruit weight per palm was significantly coupled to 12 bunches/palm + zero thinning level. However, the highest values of fruit weight (g) and fruit dimensions were significantly induced by 8bunches/palm + 30 thinning %. Anyhow, the heaviest fruit pulp weight was significantly coupled with (8 bunches /palm +30% thinning) the highest fruit seed weight was exhibited significantly by (8bunches/palm +30% thinning level) and (10 bunches/palm +30% thinning level). Meanwhile, the lowest fruit moisture content was significantly coupled with the 8bunches/palm +30% thinning level. However, the highest value of TSS % and total sugars % was significantly coupled with 8 bunches/palm + 30% thinning. Overall, the use of 8 bunches/palm with 30% thinning level of strands from the center of the bunch was the best in most of the measurements studied.
Tripura is the third smallest state of India with 19 ethnic tribes. The local peoples of Tripura widely consume wild edible plants as vegetables in their daily diet to fulfil their nutritional need and sometimes as traditional medicine too. A survey was carried out in different parts of Tripura among the 19 ethnic communities. The selection criterion for the survey area included the presence of tribal communities. During the field survey, 61 species of wild edible plants belonging to 34 families and 53 genera were identified. These species were being used as food and medicine by the indigenous communities of Tripura. Out of 61 species, 25 are annual, and 36 are perennial. Herbaceous plants make up the highest proportion of edible plants followed by trees. The ethnic communities of Tripura largely depend on the wild vegetables and thus require sustainable management of the resources by some control on their harvest and use of the wild edible plant resources.