Open Access Short Research Article

Culture Medium Based on Tomato Leaves for Abundant Production of Conidia from Septoria lycopersici

F. P. Monteiro, C. Ogoshi, L. C. Maindra, W. F. Becker

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAHR/2019/46015

Aims: This study aimed to perform further experiments about the massive production of spores in alternative culture medium based on tomato leaves with different recipes to foment artificial inoculation for scientific purposes.

Study Design: The experiments were performed in completely randomized designed with three replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted on the Caçador experimental station of the Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Enterprise of Santa Catarina (EPAGRI) from May to November 2018.   

Methodology: The study tests 13 amounts of tomato leaves to choose the concentration which better improve the conidia production within two weeks of incubation at 25ºC and photoperiod of 12 h. After the incubation period, the number of spores was counted in a Neubauer chamber. The statistical analysis were performed with Scott-Knot (P<.05). Once the more appropriate quantity of leaves was determined, the conidia production on different media was compared using PDA, King B, NDA, tomato extract, PMA and tomato leaf extract medium incubated at the same conditions as previously described. The amount of conidia produced in tomato leaf extract medium was then compared with those produced in PDA (considered a standard medium for fungus cultivation). After the incubation period, the number of spores was counted in a Neubauer chamber. The statistical analysis was performed with Tukey test (P < .05). Experiments were performed in a completely randomized design with three replicates.

Results: Results from analysis of variance indicated that quantities superior to 13 g per 100 mL rises the amount of conidia produced within two weeks from incubation at 25ºC and photoperiod of 12 h. In addition, all culture media tested supported the mycelial growth, but the production of cirrus was only evident when tomato leaves were used as the main component of the culture medium. Comparatively with the standard medium PDA, the tomato leaf extract medium is more appropriate for experiments dealing with Septoria lycopersici sporulation.        

Conclusion: The culture medium based on fresh tomato leaves can foment a large production of cirrus of Septoria lycopersici, reason why it better than the standard medium PDA for research based on septoria leaf spot.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Moringa Leaves on Postharvest Shelf Life and Quality of Tomato Fruits Inoculated with Fungal Pathogens in Makurdi

Liamngee Kator, Onah Daniel Oche, Zakki Yula Hosea, Terna David Agatsa

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJAHR/2019/45766

The effect of aqueous extract of Moringa leaves on postharvest shelf life and quality of tomato fruits inoculated with fungal pathogens in Makurdi was determined. Fresh leaves of Moringa were collected, washed, surfaced sterilized, air dried at room temperature and grounded to powder. Tomato fruits of the Roma variety were collected at breaker stage; surface sterilized, rinsed in several changes of sterile distilled water and dipped in conidia suspensions of Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium waksmanii, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum asianum respectivelyAfter 24 hours, the fruits were dipped in Moringa leaf extract concentrations of 80 g/ml and 100 g/ml respectively and stored at room temperature in completely randomized design. Data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Variance and the Fishers least significant difference was used to separate means at 5% level of significance. The results revealed an increase in marketability, postharvest decay in control fruits and shelf life respectively from 1.00 to 8.40, 0.00 to 5.67 and 1.00 to 25.00 while weight decreased from 44.3 to 20.27 across all treatment concentrations. Treated tomato fruits showed significantly lower postharvest decay (0.00 – 1.02) compared to the control. Aqueous extracts of Moringa leaves possess antifungal potential and can increase the shelf life and maintain the quality of tomato fruits during storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some Morphological and Flowering Traits in New Six Olive Genotypes Grown under Egypt Conditions

H. E. M. El-Badawy, S. F. El-Gioushy, Ikram-Saadeldin ., Reem-Abo El-Ata

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AJAHR/2019/46168

The present investigation was conducted during two growing seasons (2016 and 2017) to evaluate six genotypes of olive trees. The experimental olive trees were propagated by leafy cutting under mist propagation system. The leafy cuttings were already taken from seedy propagated olive trees which have already been planted since 1994 at the farm of Horticulture Research Institute, Giza Governorate, Egypt and were produced from breeding program of Horticulture Research Institute. i.e., Genotype 25 derived from Aggizi cv. open, Genotype 61 derived from ♀ Hamed cv. x Picual cv. ♂, Genotype 97, 91 derived from Manzanillo cv. open, Genotype 66 derived from ♀ Toffahi cv. x Arbiquna cv. ♂ and Genotype 138 derived from ♀ Arbiquna cv. x Hamed cv. ♂. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate some morphological and flowering of the six olive genotypes grown in olive collection farm located at Cairo-Alexandria desert Road (about 64- kilometer distance from Cairo). To determine the most promising genotypes for local conditions. Herein, the greatest values of morphological traits were significantly coupled with genotype (91) during both seasons of study. Moreover, genotype (97) ranked statistically second. Moreover, the start of flowering in six olive genotypes occurred during the period from March 13th to April 3rd in the first season and from April 1st to April 10th in the second season. Referring to blooming dates and blooming periods results obtained that dates of full bloom were earliest in the first season than that at the second season. Furthermore, olive genotype (138) was statistically the superior and resulted significantly the highest perfect flowers % during both seasons of study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Semi-arid Environmental Conditions to Quality of Durum Wheat Genotypes (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum)

Ayse Gulgun Oktem, Abdullah Oktem

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAHR/2019/46553

Aims: This study was conducted to determine some quality parameters of durum wheat genotypes in semi-arid environmental conditions.

Study Design: The field trial was carried out in a Randomize Complete Block Design with three replications. Thirty-one wheat genotypes were grown in a field trial and kernel samples analyzed for dry matter content, thousand kernel weight, test weight, vitreousness, protein content, wet gluten, dry gluten and SDS-sedimentation value.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons at Sanliurfa, Turkey.

Methodology: For analyses 20 main spikes that contained fully developed kernels were chosen randomly from each plot and taken to the laboratory for analyses. The nitrogen content of kernels was determined using the Kjeldahl method. Test weight and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS)-sedimentation values were determined using standard procedures. Wet and dry gluten values were determined using a glutomatic system after separating gluten from the soluble starch and protein fractions.

Results: Genotypes were different significantly (P ≤ 0.01) for all parameters. Dry matter content ranged from 92.4 to 93.1%; thousand kernel weight from 27.5 to 45.5 g, test weight from 79.3 to 85.0 kg hl-1, vitreousness from 92.7 to 99.5%, protein content from 12.1 to 17.9%, wet gluten from 28.2 to 53.1%, dry gluten from 10.1 to 16.9% and SDS-sedimentation value from 13 to 23 ml. Kunduru-1149, Selcuklu-97, Cosmodor, Zenith, C.1252, Aningavoll, Altintoprak-98, Dicle-74, Kiziltan-91, Sham-I and Havrani genotypes had good quality among other tested genotypes.

Conclusion: Protein content, wet and dry gluten values were high but SDS sedimentation values were low due to high temperature and low precipitation in semi-arid region. Protein content was positively correlated with wet gluten, dry gluten and SDS-sedimentation, respectively. Relationship between wet gluten and both dry gluten and SDS-sedimentation value were great and significant. There was a positive significant correlation between dry gluten and SDS-sedimentation value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Glycine max. L (Soya Bean) in the Northern Guinea Savanna Region of Nigeria

Iro I. Ibrahim, U. M. Umar, O. H. A. Nabage

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAHR/2019/46506

This research study was conducted at the Federal College of Forestry, Jos demonstration farm to determine the efficacy of poultry droppings, cow dung, saw dust and NPK fertilizer on the growth, yield components and yield of Glycine max. L. (Soya Bean). Randomised complete block design (RCBD) was used with five treatments replicated four times. Growth and yield characteristics were recorded on plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, number of branches, leaf area, days to 50% flowering, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, 1000 seeds weight, yield and biomass weight. The data collected was analysed using SPSS 25 and where significance was declared, Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was carried out to separate the means. The result shows that there was significant difference at the application of the treatments. poultry droppings differed significantly as it gave the highest plant height (54.78 cm), number of leaves (50.40), number of branches (3.80), leaf area (143.80 cm2), stem girth (3.26 cm), number of pods/plant (95.00), number of seeds/pod (2.62), 1000 seeds weight (420.80 g), yield (24.84 tons/ha) and biomass (15.66 tons/ha). The least number of days it takes for 50% of the seeds to flowering was also recorded on the application of poultry manure. It can be concluded that the application of poultry droppings gave the highest growth and yield characteristics of soya bean in the study area. Thus, soya bean farmers are encourage to apply poultry droppings for better growth and yield.