Open Access Original Research Article

Health Risk Assessment for Carcinogenic and Non Carcinogenic Heavy Metal Exposure from Hibiscus Leaf Cultivated in Katsina State, North West Nigeria

A. I. Yaradua, A. J. Alhassan, A. Nasir, K. I. Matazu, A. Usman, S. Yau, A. Idi, I. U. Muhammad, S. A. Yaro, J. A. Mashi

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v3i430003

This study was conducted to determine the heavy metals concentration in Hibiscus leaves cultivated in Katsina State Nigeria. The objectives were mainly to detect the presence of heavy metals in the cultivated Hibiscus leaves in the study area, compare the concentration of heavy metals in samples in relation to the permissible limits specified by WHO/FAO/USEPA Standards. Samples of cultivated Hibiscus leaves were collected in the year 2017 from the selected area.  Analysis for the concentration of these heavy metals; Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn was conducted by the use of AAS (by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) method. The health risks to the local inhabitants from the consumption of the samples were evaluated based on the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ). The possibility of cancer risks for the adult and children population through intake of carcinogenic heavy metals in the samples was estimated using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR). Results from this study shows that with the exception of Pb with mean concentration of (0.508-0.978), the mean concentration (mg/kg) range values of Cr (0.135-0.261), Cd (0.042-0.051), Fe (0.684-0.978) and Zn (1.048-1.208) in the samples were generally lower than the USEPA, WHO/FAO maximum permissive limits. The results have indicated that the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the heavy metals were lower than the tolerable daily intake limit set by the USEPA in both samples and the health risk index (HRI) for all the heavy metals were <1. The target hazard quotient (THQ) for the samples for both the adult and children population was in the decreasing order of Zn>Pb>Fe>Cr>Cd. ILCR for Cd is below the threshold risk limit (>10−5) and ILCR for Pb reached the moderate risk limit (>10−3) in all the studied samples in adults, While in children ILCR for both Pb and Cd in samples from Dabai, Daura, Funtua, Matazu and Zango for all samples have reached the moderate risk limit (>10−3), while the ILCR for Pb in samples from Birchi, Dutsinma, Kafur, Katsina and Malunfashi were beyond the moderate risk level (>10−2). The sampling area trend of risk for developing cancer as a result of consuming the studied samples showed: Funtua > Daura > Dutsinma > Katsina > Malunfashi > Matazu > Zango > Ingawa > Kafur > Dabai > Birchi for both adult and children, cumulative cancer risk (∑ILCR) of all the studied Hibiscus samples have reached the moderate risk limit (>10−3) in adult. While in children with the exception of the sample from Birchi, Dabai and Kafur which are within the moderate cancer risk (>10−3) limit, all other samples were beyond the moderate cancer risk (>10−2) limit. The study suggests that consumption of the studied samples in Katsina state is of public health concern as they may contribute to the population cancer burden. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Potassium Fertilization for Higher Flowering and Fruit Yield in ‘Magallanes’ Pummelo (Citrus maxima)

Alminda Magbalot-Fernandez, Constancio C. Deguzman

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v3i430004

This study aimed to determine the influence of Potassium (K) fertilization on the flowering and fruit yield of 13-year old ‘Magallanes' pummelo [Citrus maxima (Burm. ex Rumph.) Merr.] trees.  The experiment was conducted at South Davao Corporation (SODACO) farm, Davao City, Philippines for 12-month duration. Five treatments with increasing K levels were applied per tree: control, no K, 150 g K basal, 225 g K basal, and 225 g K basal + foliar application. Flowering, fruit set and yield of pummelo were enhanced by higher K rates. Flowering was increased by 4 times while fruit set by 86-100%. Fruit number was increased by 7 times, weight per fruit by 22-26%, and yields up to 9 times with 100% (return of investment) ROI on trees applied with 225 g K rates. The results of the study indicated the important role of K in improving the flowering, fruit yield and income of ‘Magallanes' pummelo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Analyses of Non-timber Forest Products Utilised by Communities around Kwabaktina Forest Reserve

E. M. Abubakar, J. H. Dau

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v3i430005

This study was carried out among communities surrounding the Kwabaktina forest reserve in Adamawa state, Nigeria with the aim of assessing the utilisation of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in the study area. Data were collected through Stratified and purposive sampling designs using a structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics to identify NTFPs utilised in the study area. The result showed age, educational status and household size had a significance effect on the extent of NTFPs utilisation in the study area. Income had no significant in determining the level of the utilisation of NTFPs; while gender had a significant implication on the utilisation of NTFPs. This may be attributed to the relative scarcity of most of the NTFPs as a result of deforestation and the present awareness of their (NTFPs) importance to the communities. NTFPs play an important role in the livelihood of people in the communities. These products occupy a significant place in the livelihood of the people. To ensure speedy growth and yielding (development) of NTFPs in the study area; it is recommended that NGOs (commonwealth forest association and Forest association of Nigeria) who are concerned with trees planting and sustainable forest management; and an individual should participate in funding of trees planting campaign in marginal land. Also, the people of the communities should be encouraged to embark on economic trees planting for the provision of raw materials for carving/crafting; these can help to reduce rural-urban population drift and the prevailing unemployment especially among youths.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Transplanting Dates on Yield and Yield Components of Nerica Rice Mutants at Drought Prone Areas of Bangladesh

M. I. Ali, M. A. Islam, M. M. Islam, M. S. Islam, M. A. Rouf, N. H. Mehedi

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v3i430006

To investigate the effect of various transplanting dates on yield and yield attributing characteristics of Nerica rice mutants at drought prone areas, Ishurdi and Chapai Nawabgonj during aman season. Two advanced Nerica mutant lines (N4/350/P-4(5), N10/350/P-5-4) were evaluated compared with one check variety (Binadhan-17) with three dates of transplanting (D1=July 20, D2=July 30 and D3=August 10). The experiments were laid out on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Twenty five days old seedlings were transplanted with optimum 20 x 20 cm row to row and plant to plant distance. The unit plot size was 3 m×4 m. The recommended doses of fertilizer were applied. The effect of dates of transplanting on grain yield of D3 was the highest (5.10 t ha-1) whereas D2 produced the lowest grain yield (4.24 t ha-1). Among the mutant lines/varieties, Binadhan-17 produced the highest grain yield (4.94 t ha-1) followed by N4/350/P-4(5) (4.57 t ha-1). The interaction effect of date and variety showed that Binadhan-17 produced the maximum yield (5.56 t ha-1) at D3 followed by N4/350/P-4(5) mutant (4.92 t ha-1). The interaction effect of date and location, D3 transplanting date produced the maximum yield (5.23 t ha-1) at Ishurdi which was followed by transplanting (4.96 t ha-1) at Chapai Nawabgonj. The interaction effect of variety and location Binadhan-17 produced maximum yield (5.06 t ha-1) in Ishurdi followed by Binadhan-17 in Chapai Nawabgonj (4.82 t ha-1). The interaction effect of date, variety and location transplanting date D3, Binadhan-17 produced maximum yield (5.70 t ha-1) in Ishurdi followed by transplanting date D3, Binadhan-17 in Chapai Nawabgonj (5.43 t ha-1). The data recorded on crop duration from transplanting to maturity revealed that the advanced mutant line N4/350/P-4(5) required the least average 108 days and the Binadhan-17 required maximum average 119 days. Therefore, 10th August was found to be the best date of transplanting and Binadhan 17 showed the best performance at Ishwardi in Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Organic Manure on Vegetative Growth, Flowering and Fruiting of Intercropped Strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch.) Cv. Sweet Charley inside Banana Orchard

Ashish Kumar Pal, Saket Mishra, Sandeep Singh, Rahul Kumar, Balaji Vikram

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v3i430007

Aims: Growing the organic strawberry fruit in tropical and subtropical region with the help of shade of banana plants.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad in the year 2017 to 2018.

Methodology: A field experiment was conducted with cv. sweet charley of strawberry. The observations were recorded on various vegetative growths, flowering and fruiting parameters. The mean data were subjected to the various statistical and biometrical analyses.

Results: Results show that there were major difference among treatments T3 Vermicompost (5 tonnes/ha) + Poultry manures (5 tonnes/ha) in plant height on 120 DAP (20 cm), number of leaves on 120 DAP (12.13), plant spread at 120 DAP (25.50 cm), days taken to first flower (60 days), number of flower plant-1 (14.37), days taken to first fruit (72 days), number of fruit plant-1 (7.40) fruit set % (52.12%), throughout the experiment time. obtain data show that banana plants have a major influence on the strawberry plant.

Conclusion: Considering the present investigation it is concluded that the treatment T3 -Vermicompost (5 tonnes/ha) + Poultry manures (5 tonnes/ha) was found the best in terms of maximum vegetative growth flowering and fruiting of strawberry in banana orchard.