Open Access Opinion Article

Climate Change Implications for Rice Cultivation

Prabir Datta, Utpalendu Debnath, C. K. Panda

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i230015

The inter-linkage between climate change and agriculture are multidimensional and complex. Crop response to climate change depends on the location specific baseline climate and soil condition thus; no consensus has emerged so far on how rice production will be affected by climate change impact in India. SRI methods have been implemented for more robust and healthy plants and the larger and deeper root systems. Climate change might have some adverse impacts on rice production that has been reflected in several literatures. As per Prof. M.S. Swaminathan, there will be a decline in Asian rice production due to climate change impact. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) has indicated one-degree increase in temperature could cause a reduction of 10 percent in rice yield. Climate directly influences the physiological processes of rice plant’s growth, development and grain formation. Indirectly, climate influences the incidence of crop pests, diseases and hence, and grain yields. A skilful seasonal prediction will likely become significantly essential to provide the necessary information to guide agriculture management to mitigate the compounding impacts of soil moisture variability and temperature stress in rice cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Filter Mud on Tomato Vegetative Growth Yield and Yield Components

Abuzaid O. Abuzaid, Mohamed S. Osman, Elfatih A. M. Elsiddig, Gamal Eldin Eltayeb Abd-Elrahim

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i230013

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the   effect of different levels of nitrogen and filter mud cake applications on vegetative growth and yield on tomato cultivar "Castle Rock".

Place and  Duration of Study: Field experiments were conducted during two successive winter seasons 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 at the experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Bakht Alruda, Ed Duiem, Sudan.

Methodology: Treatments included three Nitrogen levels (0, 43 and 86 kg N/ ha) and three filter mud levels (0, 2 and 4 ton/ ha). Urea (46%N) was used as source of nitrogen and applied after fifteen days from sowing. Filter mud cake was applied one month before sowing. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications.

Results: Results showed significant differences among N treatments in tomato vegetative growth, yield and yield components in the two seasons. The 86 kg N/ ha showed the highest vegetative growth yield and yield components compared to control. The filter mud application at both rates showed significant increase in the most vegetative growth parameters, yield and yield components compared to the control in the two seasons. The combination of N and filter mud resulted in significant increase in vegetative growth and yield components, the highest values were obtained by application of 86 kg/ha combined with 4 ton filter mud /ha.

Conclusion: Considering the present study it can be concluded  that the application of 86 kg/ha combined with 4 ton filter mud /ha  is the best level in terms of maximum vegetative growth, yield and yield components of Castle Rock tomato cultivar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Priming Methods: Alternative Strategy to Improve Seed and Seedling Performance of Soursop (Annona muricata)

D. J. A. Najorda, R. J. G. Rosales

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i230014

The evaluation of seed priming methods on the seed and seedling performance of soursop was conducted January 9 to April 3, 2019 in San Nicolas, Ilocos Norte, Philippines.  The study was conducted to investigate the effect of seed priming methods  capable of breaking dormancy; improve germination rate; determine the seed vigor of soursop; and identify the best seed priming method that provide better seedling performance. The experimental  treatments (unprimed and three priming methods, hydropriming, halopriming and hormonal priming) were laid out in Completely Randomized Design with three replications. A     total of 20 polyethylene bags were used per treatment per replication with one seed sown in every bag.

Alternative way to improve seed and seedling performance is the use of these seed priming methods. The seed and seedling performance of soursop were significantly affected by priming methods. Primed seeds had higher percentage germination rate (PGR) than unprimed seeds. But numerically, the highest PGR was hydropriming. Hormonal priming produced significantly taller seedlings at 10 and 40 days after emergence (DAE) than unprimed seeds and more leaves per seedling at 30 to 50 DAE. Hormonal, hydropriming and halopriming produced significantly higher fresh weight of seedlings than unprimed seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nematicidal Effect of Some Botanical Extracts for the Management of Meloidogyne incognita and on Growth of Tomato

J. I. Oluwatayo, C. I. Jidere, A. Nwankiti

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i230017

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important and widely grown vegetable crop all over the world. Although tomato is nutritionally and economically important, its production is constrained by biotic and abiotic constraints leading to poor marketable quantity and quality worldwide. Root-knot nematodes are one of the major pests affecting tomato production worldwide, especially, in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. Green house experiments were laid out in Complete Block Design (CBD) with a 3x7 factorial arrangement replicated three times carried out at the Department of Crop and Environmental Protection, University of Agriculture. The soil was sterilized before the experiment. Fresh leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera, Ricinus communis  and Jatropha curcas were washed with tap water, 15 g  from each of leaves and seeds of the different botanicals was macerated separately in an electric blender at high speed for 4 minutes in 100 ml distilled water. The mixtures were passed through a Whatman filter paper number 1; the filtrates of the leaves/seeds were then collected. Three tomato varieties viz: Roma Vf, Rio Grande and UC82B were inoculated with approximately 5,000 freshly hatched second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita, two weeks after transplanting.  Thirty percent aqueous extract each  of Castor, Moringa and Jatropha leaves and seeds was used, while double distilled water (0%) served as the control. Thirty ml of   each leaf and seed aqueous extract was applied, 48 hours after inoculation as soil drench. Application was done at 1 weeks intervals thereafter for a period of 16 weeks. Data collected include number of fruits per plant, root gall index, nematode reproductive factor, and final nematode population. The results showed that various Moringa oleifera, Ricinus communis  and Jatropha curcas leaves and seed extracts significantly (P<0.05) reduced root gall index, final population of M. incognita in the soil and nematode reproductive factor than the control. Application of the various treatments Moringa oleifera, Ricinus communis  and Jatropha curcas led to significant increase in mean number of fruits and mean fruit weight yield of all the three tomato varieties. Therefore, the application of leaf and seed aqueous extracts of Moringa, Jatropha and Castor will serve as good alternative for the management of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Micronutrients in Presence of Different Levels of Organic Manure on Growth and Yield of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Jinia Afsun, Khaleda Khatun, Tahmina Mostarin, Md. Ehsanul Haq, Md. Nahidul Islam, Bithi Rani Biswas, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Montasir Ahmed

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i230018

A field experiment was conducted at the Horticultural Farm of Sher-e–Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka from October, 2017 to March, 2018 to study the effect of micronutrients in presence of different level of organic manure on growth and yield of tomato. There were four combinations of micronutrients viz. N0=0 kg Zn 0 kg B/ha, N1= Zn2 kg B1.5 kg/ha, N2=Zn4 kg B2 kg/ha, N3=Zn6kg B2.5 kg/ha and four organic manure viz M0=0 ton/ha, M1=Cowdung (15 ton/ha), M2=Poultry manure (10 ton/ha), M3=(Cowdung 7.5 ton/ha+ Poultry manure 5 ton/ha). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications and there were altogether 48 plots. Application of micronutrients and organic manure significantly influenced the growth, yield and size of the tomato. The highest yield (66.96 t/ha) was found from treatments N2 and the lowest yield (25.69 t/ha) was obtained from treatment N0. Due to the application of organic manure, the highest yield (50.78 t/ha) was obtained from M3 and the lowest yield (39.86 t/ha) was recorded from M0. In the case of combined effect, the highest yield (76.33 t/ha) was found from treatment N2M3 and the lowest yield (24.60 t/ha) was found from treatment N0M0. So, the application of Zn4 kg B2 kg/ha along with Cowdung 7.5 ton+Poultry manure 5 ton/ha was the best for growth and yield of tomato. Economic analysis raveled that N2M3 gave the maximum benefit-cost ratio (3.2). So, the application of Zn4 kg B2 kg/ha along with Cowdung 7.5 ton+Poultry manure 5 ton/ha was the best for growth and yield of tomato.