Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effects of Cow Dung and Poultry Manure on the Germination and Growth of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) William Roscoe Production

O. A. Owoloja, I. O. Oyewo

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i330022

The study is based on determining the effects of organic manure (cow dung and poultry manure) on the growth & germination of Zingiber officinale using topsoil in the research as the medium of growth. The seeds were subjected to 7 treatments which include cow dung and poultry manures and topsoil only as control treatment. The seeds were sown directly into the polythene pots thoroughly mixed with the organic manures at different levels of application which includes 2.5 g, 5.0 g and 10.0 g with 3 replicates making a total of 21 poly pots. The germination was thoroughly observed for 3 weeks after planting. The experiment was laid in a completely Randomized design with 3 replicates.

The parameters assessed were the plant height, the number of leaves and stem girth. The data collected were subjected to ANOVA.

The Results of the study showed that treatment T1 with cow dung at 2.5 g had the highest plant height of (49.65 cm), stem diameter of (0.458 m) and Number of leaves (12.27) followed by T5 (5.0g of poultry Manure) with plant height of (45.40 cm) stem diameter (0.435 cm) and number of leaves (12.73). Treatment 7 which is the control treatment had the Least Leaf Number of (24), height of (28.97) and stem diameter of (0.257).

Therefore from all the treatments used, cow dung at 2.5 g and poultry manure at 5.0 g are advisable for Raising Zingiber officinale.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effect of Biological Fixation of Nitrogen and Chemical Fertilizer on Yield Optimization of Two Sorghum Varieties in the Western Highlands

Stephane Martial Kamtchoum, Ibrahim Nchoutnji, Carine Nono Temegne, Libert Brice Tonfack, Lucas Fofe, Thierry Gaitan Tchuenga Seutchueng, Christelle Mbieji Kemayou, Frank Kamdem Notche, Christopher Suh, Emmanuel Youmbi

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i330023

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) is a staple food in Africa, South Asia and Central America. In Cameroon, it is the main food of the population of the Sudano-Sahelian zone. Its production could decline by up to 20% by the middle of the century, due to climatic disturbances. This climatic disturbance in Cameroon has led to several consequences among which, low crop yields. The comparative effect of the biological fixation of nitrogen and chemical fertilizer on the optimization of yield of two varieties of Sorghum, was conducted from July to October at IRAD (Institute of Agricultural Research for Development) station of Foumbot. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with two factors: varieties of sorghum (V1: S35 and V2: BIOGLOR) and treatments (T0: Control, T1: 20-10-10 and T2: Sorghum / NITU beans). The collar diameter, the number of leaves and plant height were evaluated each week and yield in the end of the cropping season. As a result, treatment T1 induced very significantly (P ˂ .01) growth (shoot length, leaf and collar diameter). T1 (V1: 1.30 ± 0.11 t.ha-1, V2: 2.01 ± 0.07 t.ha-1) and T2 (V1: 1.12 ± 0.02 t.ha-1, V2: 2.15 ± 0.03 t.ha-1) showed statistically equal yields, and significantly different from T0 (V1: 0.50 ± 0.06 t.ha-1, V2: 0.55 ± 0.05 t.ha-1). The BIOGLOR variety had the highest yield (1.57 ± 0.57 t.ha-1) compared to the S35 variety (0.97 ± 0.19 t.ha-1). The treatment T2 is the recommended fertilizer system because of the higher grain yield of sorghum and its ability to protect the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Seed Vigor Characters of Selected Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes Using Accelerated Ageing Method

S. A. Henga, W. M. Thagana, Hunja Hurage, M. W. Githendu

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i330024

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an annual grass with the third-highest world production after sugarcane and maize. However, due to losses in vigor caused by poor seed storage, global consumption has surpassed production. Preservation of germ plasma both in-situ and ex-situ is the key to the conservation of rich biodiversity. Seed vigor is a key element of seed quality and high vigor seeds give uniform plants stand and higher yields per area. Accelerated ageing tests enable testing the vigor of stored seeds by subjecting the seeds to a particular temperature and relative humidity over time and then performing standard germination tests. Viability of most seeds normally reduces with the storage period, storage temperature and relative humidity. There is limited information on the duration of storage for rice seeds. Accelerated ageing is considered an excellent option as a vigor test when compared to seedling emergence and index of emergence speed because of the shortest time of acquisition and efficient results. Accelerated ageing tests at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours (45ºC and 98% RH) were carried out JKUAT post-harvest laboratory using eight rice varieties’ in four replications of 100 seeds each. Data were analyzed using GENSTAT statistical package. ANOVA and T-tests at 5% significant level. Results showed that there was significant variation in both coleorhiza and coleoptile formation among rice varieties (p<0.001), treatments (p<0.001) and interaction between rice varieties and treatment (p<0.001). The difference between all treatments was significant with 72 hours’ treatment having the highest number of days to coleorhiza and coleoptile formation. The present study has shown that prolonged duration of higher temperatures results in a reduction of seed viability. The earliest coleorhiza formation was observed on day 2 and the latest on day 6. Results from this study will guide farmers and seed processors on considerations regarding storage period and storage temperature to ensure high-quality seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Economic Analysis of Rice Production in Pakistan: A Case Study

Bilal Bashir, Bilal Nawaz, Saira Sattar

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i330025

Rice is the second-largest crop in Pakistan as it contributes 1.3% share in the GDP of Pakistan.

For the last couple of year’s rice economy is caught up in a very complex situation. The present study was designed to find the yield gap, cost of production, technical efficiency and BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio) in rice production. To achieve the study objectives, data were collected from 150 respondents. These respondents were selected from eight villages of District Sheikhupura by using a purposive random sampling technique. Data were collected by using a well-developed and pre-tested questionnaire by conducting personnel interviews.

Results of descriptive analysis showed that the average farm size of the farmers was 14.85 acres. BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio) of fine and coarse rice varieties were 1.13 and 1.11, respectively. To Support rice production and to minimize the farmer’s losses, the Government should announce the support price of rice. The cost of production can be reduced by imposing strict vigilance and control over the input supplier.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic Manure and Its Application Timing on the Growth and Yield of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)

Sanjida Akhter, Tahmina Mostarin, Khaleda Khatun, Md. Ehsanul Haq, Ismita Akter Soniya, Shirajum Monira, Iffat Sharmin, Avijit Ghosh

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i330026

An experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Farm, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, from October 2017 to February 2018. The experiment consisted of two factors, Factor A: Four levels of organic manures, viz. M0 = Control; M1 = Cowdung (35 t ha-1), M2 = Mustard oil cake (3.5 t ha-1) and M3 = Vermicompost. Factor B: Three application times, viz. T1 = 15 days before transplanting, T2 = Application at the time of transplanting and T3 = 15 days after transplanting. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. In the case of organic manure, the highest yield (38.70 t/ha) was found from M2 treatment, whereas the lowest yield (19.71t/ha) was recorded from M0 treatment. In the case of application time, the highest yield (31.83t/ha) was found from T1 treatment, whereas the lowest yield (28.10 t/ha) was recorded from T3   treatment. Due to combined effect maximum yield (38.704 t/ha) with net return (4,74,421tk) and BCR (2.20) was obtained from M2T1 treatment combination while the lowest yield (17.90 t/ha) with the lowest income (44,211 tk) and BCR (1.17) from M0T3 treatment combination. So, the economic analysis revealed that the M2T1 treatment combination appeared to be best for achieving the higher growth, yield and economic benefit of cauliflower.