Open Access Short Research Article

Pith Necrosis of Tomato Caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava May Not Decrease Production

F. P. Monteiro, C. Ogoshi, D. A. Cardoso, V. Perazolli

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i430030

Aims: This study aimed to measure the losses in the production of tomato plants caused by the bacteria P. viridiflava.

Study Design: Experiments were performed in a completely randomized design with six replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted on the Caçador experimental station of the Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Enterprise of Santa Catarina (EPAGRI) from October to April during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 crop season.

Methodology: Bacteria were isolated from tomato plants with pith necrosis symptoms, using nutrient agar. The isolated strain was identified by a scheme of tests for bacteria that emit fluorescence, known as LOPAT, and by sequencing the 16S rDNA region. Tomato plants were cultivated for two seasons during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019. In the first year the cultivar Paronset was cultivated and in the next season the experiment was performed with the cultivars Compack, Nagai, Paronset and Pizzadoro. During the production season, tomato fruits were harvested and the weight was accounted for. At the beginning of the first bunch formation, the stems of the plant were inoculated with wood sticks containing bacterial colonies removed from a 48h-Petri dish culture medium. Tomato plants cultivated as control treatments were not inoculated. At the end of the cultivation seasons, the stems were cut to analyze the pith necrosis progress.

Results: In both cultivation seasons, there was no decrease in the production associated with the pith necrosis caused by P. viridiflava EPAGRI BacPvT1 because the total weight of fruits harvested from inoculated plants was not statistically different compared to the non-inoculated plants. The disease progressed in all inoculated plants and adventitious root formation as external symptoms was observed.

Conclusion: The bacteria Pseudomonas viridiflava EPAGRI BacPvT1, one of the etiological agents of pith necrosis of tomato, may not decrease the production. Even causing some injuries, it may be not cause any damage.

Open Access Short communication

Morphology and Yield Potentials of Lablab Bean Genotypes Grown in Early Kharif Season

D. Deb Nath, M. S. Islam, T. Akter, J. Ferdousi

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i430031

An experiment was conducted during March 2014 to August 2014 at the experimental field of Sylhet Agricultural University (SAU), Sylhet to study the morphological variability, yield and yield contributing characteristics among the four lablab bean genotypes viz., SB003, SB010-1, SB011 and BP003. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The genotypes SB003 and SB010-1 had reddish brown seed coat color while it was black in SB011 and reddish color in the genotype BP003. Among the genotypes 100 dry seed weight was ranged from 34.00 g (SB010-1) to 42.00 g (SB011). Variation in yield and yield contributing characteristics were found among four lablab bean genotypes. The genotype SB003 produced the maximum number of pods plant-1 (206.3) followed by SB010-1 (134.3) while it was minimum for the genotype SB011 (92.67). Similar trend was also noticed in case of pod yield plant-1 among the genotypes. The highest pod yield was recorded in the genotype SB010 (7.73 ton ha-1) while it was the lowest in SB011 (2.87 ton ha-1). However, pod yield ha-1 indicating bright scope to popularize lablab bean production during early kharif in Sylhet region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Pre-Harvest Bagging on Fruit Quality of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Langra

Md. Tariqul Islam, Md. Shazadur Rahman, Mst. Moli Akter, Md. Nazmul Hasan, Md. Sorof Uddin

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i430027

Fruits are susceptible to insect pest infestations, bird attack, various pathogens, and mechanical damages, all of which can reduce their commercial value and thereby cause significant yield and economic losses. The objective of this study was to control mango pests and diseases as well as to improve the fruit quality of mango through bagging technology. An investigation was performed during the year 2016 from March to July for safe mango production by applying minimum use of pesticide entitled studies on influence of bagging on physico-chemical properties and shelf life of mango cv. Langra. The mango fruits were bagged at marble stage (40 days from fruit set) with different types of bags which constituted the various treatments viz: T1: Brown paper bag; T2: White paper bag; T3: Polythene bag T4: Muslin cloth bag; T5: No bagging (control). Bagging with brown paper bag and white paper bag improved fruit retention, weight of fruit, diameter of fruit, pulp weight, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, percent of citric acid, reducing sugars and β-carotene at harvest and ripe stage over control. Brown paper bag changed fruit color. In all cases good quality, cleaner, disease and insect free fruits were harvested. The sensory qualities in fruits of brown, white and muslin cloth bags were improved over control. Pre-harvest bagging also reduced occurrence of spongy tissue and the incidence of mealy bugs. These results indicate that fruit bagging can improve fruit quality through reduction in disease and insect-pest attack and shelf life of mango cv. Langra.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Response of Two Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties to Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers in the Forest- Savannah Transitional Zone of Ghana

Ali A. Danje, M. E. Essilfie, E. K. Asiedu

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i430028

The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the influence of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of two onion varieties in the transitional zone of Ghana. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with 3 replications. Two varieties [Bawku Red and Red Creole] were laid as main plots and fertilizer rates [10 t/ha Cow dung, 10 t/ha Poultry manure, 300 kg/ha NPK, 5 t/ha PM + 150 kg/ha NPK, 5 t/ha CD + 150 kg/ha NPK) and control (without amendment)] were assigned to sub-plots. The two field experiments were conducted in 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons at the research field of the College of Agriculture Education, University of Education Winneba, Mampong campus. The result showed that Bawku Red planted on 5 t/ha PM + 150 kg/ha NPK produced (P=.05) higher number of leaves per plant and shoot fresh and dry weight than the control during the 2016 cropping season. Red Creole planted on 10 t/ha PM had higher number of leaves per plant, taller plants and higher marketable bulb yield than the control during the 2016 cropping season. In both 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons, Bawku Red and Red Creole planted on 5 t/ha PM + 150 kg/ha NPK produced (P=.05) higher total bulb yield than the control. For maximum vegetative growth and yield in onion production, preferably Bawku red, sole poultry manure (10 t/ha) and/or in combination with NPK (5 t/ha PM+150 kg/ha NPK) is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Seeds Source and Manure Type on Germination and Early Growth of Khaya senegalensis (Desr) A. Juss Seedlings in Bauchi State, Nigeria

E. M. Abubakar, E. K. Rabo

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i430029

Khaya senegalensis (Desr) A. Juss is a perennial deciduous tree which has many uses in developing nations. The population of the tree is rapidly declining due to no conservation efforts to prevent the species from endanger and extinction. At the moment there is dearth information on manure types required to raise healthy seedlings of the tree species in the study area. To conserve this genetic resource, germination and early growth rate experiment was carried out using seeds collected from three locations (eco-zones) (Alkaleri, Bauchi and Toro). Matured seeds of K. senegalensis were collected from mother tree stand in the three locations. One hundred and fifty seeds (150) from each location were sown in perforated polythene pots at an average depth of 2-3 cm. After germination i.e. 30 days after planting, different manures were applied to the seedlings. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three treatments, namely: poultry dung, cow dung and NPK manures; the experiment was replicated four times. Data on seeds germination variables of interest (seedling heights, number of leaves, collar diameter, leaf area, leaf width, leaf length and fresh weights) were measured. Seedlings height were measured using meter rule, collar diameters using a venier caliper, numbers of leaves were determined by manual counting the number of leaves on the seedlings, leaf area was measured by tracing leaves of seedling on a graduated graph sheet. Data collected on seed germination and early growth rate were subjected to descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (ANOVA). Where significant differences occurred, Tukey test was used to separate the means. Based on this finding, germination of seeds commenced after 10 to 14 days. Locations and manure types had significant effects on the mean heights, number of leaves, collar diameter, leaf area, leaf width, length and fresh weights of K. senegalensis seedlings in the study area. Thus, for species conservation and genetic heredity, seeds sourced from Bauchi eco-zone was the best with poultry manure as the best performed manure for the raising of K. senegalensis seedlings in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Occurrence of Various Wilt Pathogens Associated with Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Togo

Kwasi Dzola Ayisah, Koffi Simiti, Mawuli Kossivi Aziadekey

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i430032

In December 2015, wilt symptoms on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were observed on vegetable growing perimeters in Sotouboua district in Togo. The disease, manifested by wilting of the youngest leaves followed by wilting and total desiccation of plants who eventually dy, leading to losses of up to 100%, is similar to bacterial wilt. The aim of this study, was to determine the pathogen responsible for the observed symptoms. For this purpose, phytosanitary surveys were carried out on tomato plots in Sotouboua distric, in 2018. During the surveys, Tomato plants infected by wilt and the plots soil samples, were collected on CECODRI project and farmers’ plots in the district. Soil samples were analyzed for the detection of nematodes while, tomato leaves, stems and roots were directly observed under binocular loupe and after incubation in Petri dishes containing filter paper moistened with distilled water to encourage sporulation of phytopathogenic fungi. Infected tomato stems and roots were analyzed by stem-streaming and DAS-ELISA tests using Agdia inc. Ralstonia solanacearum Patho Screen Kit to detect R. solanacearum. The results of the phytosanitary surveys showed that the wilt prevalence was 100% in Sotouboua district with incidence rates of up to 100%. Analysis of diseased samples, using stem-streaming and DAS-ELISA tests, revealed that 85.11% of diseased plants were infected by R. solanacearum. No nematodes were identified in the roots of the infected plants, but in soil samples only a few nematodes were counted. No fungus was found in the plants with wilt symptoms. It appears, therefore that, the wilt on tomato plants in Sotouboua district was caused by R. solanacearum. This, in our knowledge, is the first report on R. solanacearum infection on tomato in Togo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Assessment of Radiation and PVP/ Zn-Nanoparticles on Sour Orange Seedling

Nadia A. Hamed, M. Salah, M. F. Ahmed, Tahsin Shoala

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i430033

Aims: The objective of this study is evaluate the effects of both pre-sowing gamma irradiation at low dose of 0 or 20 Gy and the soaking part of radiated seeds in zinc nanoparticles (Zn NPs) solutions at rate 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm on behavior and physiological changes of sour orange seedling.

Study Design: The design of the study is Two-Way Randomized Blocks.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 on sour orange rootstock (Citrus aurantium) grown at the experimental farm of the  Horticulture Institute, Giza , Egypt.

Methodology: Eight different treatments were used as follow: 1) Control, 2) Gamma radiation at 0 Gy + soaking in Zn NPs at 500 ppm. 3) Gamma radiation at 0 Gy + soaking in Zn NPs at 1000 ppm. 4) Gamma radiation at 0 Gy + soaking in Zn NPs at 2000 ppm. 5) Gamma radiation at 20 Gy + soaking in tap water Zn NPs at 0 ppm. 6) Gamma radiation at 20 Gy + soaking in Zn NPs at 500 ppm. 7) Gamma radiation at 20 Gy + soaking in Zn NPs at 1000 ppm. 8) Gamma radiation at 20 Gy + soaking in Zn NPs at 2000 ppm.

Results: Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed multiple shapes and uniform distribution of Zn NPs through the polymer network and the mean size of Zn NPs ranging is 40.9 nm. Generally, the results reveal that, 20 Gy combined with 1000ppm Zn NPs treatment increased seed germination percentage and stem length. While, 20 Gy plus 500 ppm Zn NPs treatment increased stem diameter and plant pigments concentration. Protein analysis of sour orange seedling treated with gamma radiation and then Zn NPs showed that, protein groups pattern (10-20 KD) enhanced with gamma rays 20 gray alone or with Zn NPs at 500 or 1000 ppm, while the protein groups pattern above 60 KD disappeared.

Conclusion: Using gamma irradiation and then soaking part of irradiated seeds in Zn NPs solutions had significant effects on vegetative growth and root characters as well as some chemical properties of sour orange leaves. In addition, there are variable differences in the protein pattern between treated and untreated sour orange seedlings with gamma radiation and / or Zn NPs. Although, 20 Gy + 500 ppm Zn NPs treatment increased stem diameter, which is the main characteristic for the success of grafting process, the obtained results showed changes in proteins and it possible the gene structure had been changed due to this treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption of Recommended Bio-fertilizer Technologies among Soybean Growers in Ujjain Distrsict of Madhya Pradesh

Vaijanti Patidar, Sandhya Choudhary, Abhay Wankhede, S. K. Choudhary

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i430034

Bio-fertilizers are living organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil. It refers to the use of microbes instead of chemicals to enhance the nutrition of the soil. Conventional fertilizers are those formed through decomposition including compost; household wastes and green manure while chemical fertilizers are manmade or mined. Convention fertilizers are nature friendly but not effective as chemical fertilizers. Conventional or natural fertilizers provide nutrient to plant at slow rate and lower concentration but chemical fertilizers provide nutrient at fast rate and higher concentraion so, farmers frequently try to use chemical fertilizers in the field for crop development. Ujjain district has a high potential for soybean production. The crop is processed for oil, protein and animal feed. A smaller percentage is processed   into soy milk, soy flour, soy protein, tofu for human consumption. The higher use of chemical fertilizers in soybean crop for higher yield creates negative effect on human, animal and environment health. Hence, research in the use of bio-fertilizer in soybean crop in Ujjain district was conducted with 120 respondents. The major finding (e.g. quantity or bifertilizer used as seed trement) was obtained as Adoption of recommended bio-fertilizer technologies by beneficiary farmers was higher than non beneficiary farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-fortification of Quality Protein Maize (Zea mays L.) with Beta Carotene

D. O. Ibirinde, K. Balogun, J. E. Uloko, A. S. Adetunji

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i430035

Alike other cereals, maize is deficient in certain essential amino acids such as lysine and tryptophan. While lysine is critical in protein synthesis for the growth of tissues and important in the absorption of calcium from the intestinal mucosa, tryptophan is the biological precursor of B-vitamin and niacin. Increasing protein quality alone may have a displacement effect on the efficiency of provitamin A, carotenoid bio-conversion and utilization. The research was designed to improve the quality protein maize with beta carotene in order to further enhance its nutritional content by hybridization, through the conventional method of breeding, using randomize complete block design (RCBD). Materials used were quality protein maize (white endosperm) genotype and yellow (rich in beta carotene) maize. Pollination was manually conducted and controlled, to exclude the possibility of unwanted pollination. Harvested seeds indicated a successful cross of both varieties as seen in the pigmentation of the hybridized maize seeds, which appeared pale yellow. However, the two varieties and their hybrid seeds harvested were subjected to laboratory analysis to compare their nutritional content. All the data collected were subject to statistical analysis using SPSS and mean separated by DMRT at 5% probability level. The result shows that individual varieties were higher in crude protein (13.5%) for yellow maize and Quality protein maize (12.9%), than the hybrid QYM (11.9%). Similarly, hybrid maize seed had higher percentage of lysine (1.37%), tryptophan (0.54%) and methionine (0.85%) than the individual varieties. Also the ear diameter correlated positively to 100 seeds weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Planting Method and Seeding Date on Leaf and Seed Production of Lettuce

M. Shahinul, M. Rahman, M. M. R. Salim, B. Ahmed, M. H. Rashid

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2019/v4i430037

Aim: The objective of this study is to identify the suitable planting method and seeding time for leaf and seed production of lettuce.

Place and Duration: A field study was carried out in Bangadandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur Bangladesh during 2012-13.

Materials and Design: A commercial lettuce variety BSMRAU lettuce-1 was used in this study. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors, namely planting method (M1 – transplanted seedling produced on nursery bed, M2 - transplanted seedling produced in polybag and M3 - direct seeding) and seeding time (T1 - 16 October, T2 - 1 November, T3 - 16 November, T4 - 1 December and T5 - 16 December).

Results: Analyses of variance revealed with a statistically significant variation (p<0.01 or p<0.05) among the treatments. The treatment interaction revealed that the highest leaf yield 27.33 t/ha was harvested from M3T2, which was statistically similar with M2T2 (26.78 t/ha). On the other hand, the highest seed yield 412.00 kg/ha was harvested from the treatment combination of M3T2, which was statistically different from all other treatment combinations. Quality traits viz. dry matter content, fiber content and organoleptic test were also better in early seeding.

Conclusion: Considering leaf yield, seed yield and quality traits, direct seeding at 1 November was found to be the most suitable treatment combination for leaf and seed production of lettuce in Bangladesh conditions. But transplanting with polybag raised seedlings may be suitable if the land is occupied by the pervious crops.