Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Edible Starch and Sodium Bi-carbonate on Postharvest Quality of Minimally Processed Carrot and Potato

Md. Nazmul Hasan Mehedi, Avijit Halder, Md. Fakhrul Hasan, Nowrin Islam Toma, Md. Abdur Rouf, Jannatul Farthouse, Md. Aktarul Islam

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v6i230067

The demand for healthy and ready-to-eat products has been growing steadily over the years. However, these products are very susceptible to spoilage and have a short shelf-life. In this research, edible coatings based on edible starch (aloe vera gel) and NaHCO3 were applied on fresh-cut vegetable samples (carrot and potato), and the changes in their bio-chemical properties and microbial changes were monitored during 6 days of storage at 4ºC. Two factor experiments, Factor A; postharvest treatments (different concentration of aloe gel and NaHCO3) and Factor B; two vegetable species (Carrot and Potato) were laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Different concentration of aloe vera gel and NaHCO3 solutions were prepared as per treatment. The prepared slices of vegetable species were treated with different treatment combinations and stored in 200 g capacity polyethylene bags sealed under air, vacuum or modified active atmosphere and then bio-chemically (Titratable Acidity (TA), Ascorbic Acid (AA) content, Total Soluble Solids (TSS), Reducing Sugar (RS), Non-reducing Sugar (NRS), pH) and microbiologically assessed. Higher rate of edible starch (30%) + NaHCO3 (2%) treated potato (CT12) showed the superior performance on TA (1.290), TSS (5.200% Brix), NRS content (0.340) and pH (4.773% Brix) compare to control and other interaction treatments of the study at 6 days after storage while  untreated potato (T0) showed statistically lower AA (6.575 mg/25 g) TA (0.464) TSS (3.856), pH (3.827) NRS (0.133). Growth of bacterial colonies on NA media had statistically highest (14.00) in untreated potato and lowest (5.00) in T12 treated potato while fungal colonies on PDA media range of 4.00 to 11 at 6 DAS. The study may help small-scale establishments to increase the shelf-life of minimally processed vegetables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Seed Size on Seedling Emergence, Growth and Yield of Potted Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.)

Oyewole, Charles Iledun, Aminu Patience

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 13-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v6i230068

Pot experiments were conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State in the Southern Guinea savannah ecological zone of Nigeria to evaluate the influence of seed size on plant performance with reference to seedling emergence, seedling growth, development and yield components and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogea). The treatment consisted of three different seed sizes: small, medium and large seeds apportioned to a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with ten replications. For seed size, the seeds were initially graded into small, medium and large seeds based on visual assessment for length and diameter and from each group 100-seed weight was determined thus 100-seed weight became the parameter for measuring seed size as used in this experiment. The analyzed data showed no significant effect of seed size on groundnut canopy height, leaf number, leaf area, stem girth, days to first flower, number of pods / plant, pod weight, and shelling percentage, but significantly influenced mean days to seedling emergence, days to 50 percent flowering, 100-seed weight and taproot length. The significant effect of seed size on days to seedling emergence, days to 50 percent flowering, 100-seed weight and taproot length could significantly influence farmers’ opinion in the choice of seeds used in planting a field; as this could determine crop maturity, grain yield/ha while length of tap root could affect depth of root forage for nutrients and water, thus crop survival. Despite the non-significant effect of the treatment (seed size) on most parameters investigated, generally crop performance increased with seed size and vice versa, thus sowing of larger seeds is recommended for better groundnut performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth, Yield and Biochemical Characteristics of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Genotypes under Seasonal Heat Stress

T. R. Chapagain, A. K. Shrestha, M. D. Sharma, K. Mishra Tripathi, A. Srivastva

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v6i230069

This field study was conducted to evaluate yield and fruit quality of tomato genotypes under seasonal heat stress condition (April-June) in plains of Chitwan valley, Nepal for two consecutive years in 2018 and 2019 at research farm, of Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Nepal. Nine tomato genotypes were evaluated for their morphological, flowering, yield and biochemical traits in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Results showed significant differences (P = 0.05) among all genotypes for all traits evaluated. Genotypes AVTO-9304 and AVTO-9801 were early flowering and flowered within 28 days after transplanting. The highest marketable fruit yield of 110.6 and 92.6 t ha-1 was recorded in genotype TO-1057 in 2018 and 2019, respectively with the mean yield of 101.6 t ha-1  whereas genotype AVTO-9802 produced  the lowest fruit yield in both years (34.0 and 32.0 t ha-1 in 2018 and 2019, respectively) with the mean yield of  32.9 t ha-1.  The highest amount of total soluble solid content (4.90 oBrix) was observed in genotype AVTO-9803. Genotype ‘AVTO-1314’ had a significantly higher amount (12.60 mg 100 g-1) of ascorbic acid but statistically at par with AVTO-9801, TO-1057 and Pariposa-4102. This study identified genotype TO-1057 as a highly productive genotype suitable for cultivation during summer months in Chitwan and this genotype could be promoted in other agro-ecological regions having the similar climatic conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Secondary Traits for Maize (Zea mays L.) Tolerance to Drought Combined with Reduced N Fertilization Rate

A. M. M. Al- Naggar, M. M. Shafik, R. Y. M. Musa

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 30-44
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v6i230070

The secondary trait for a given abiotic stress tolerance, should be of strong correlation (r) with grain yield, high heritability (h2b) and high genetic advance (GA) under stressed conditions. The main objective of the present investigation was to identify secondary trait(s) for drought and/or low-N tolerance in maize genotypes. A two-year experiment was conducted, using a split-split-plot design. Main plots were allotted to two irrigation regimes, i.e. well watering (WW) and water stress at flowering (WS), sub-plots to three N fertilizer rates, i.e. low (LN), medium (MN) and high (HN) and sub-sub-plots to nineteen maize genotypes. Analysis of variance of randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) was also performed under each of the six environments (WW-HM, WW-MN, WW-LN, WS-HN, WS-MN and WS-LN). Tolerance to drought and/or low-N was strongly correlated with grain yield/plant (GYPP) under stressed environments. GYPP had high (h2b) and (GA); thus it is considered the best indicator of drought, low N or both stresses tolerance.  The best secondary traits are high 100-kernel weight (100-KW), ears/plant (EPP), kernels/row (KPR), and short anthesis-silking interval (ASI) for low-N tolerance, high EPP, 100-KW, plant height (PH) and short ASI for drought tolerance, high 100-KW, EPP, KPR, PH and short ASI, for tolerance to drought combined with low N, and high 100-KW, rows/ear (RPE) and KPR under optimum conditions (WW-HN), since they show high (r), high (h2b) and high (GA) estimates under the respective environments. Under low-N and/or drought, future research should focus on the incorporation of secondary traits such as EPP, KPR, 100-KW, PH, ASI in the selection programs along with the grain yield trait.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption of Integrated Rice-fish Farming Technology in Ebonyi State Nigeria: Sources of Information and Level of Use

Lucy A. Onoh, Charles C. Onoh, Christiana I. Agomuo, Theresa C. Ogu, Evajoy O. Onwuma, Frank C. Anaeto

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 45-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v6i230071

Background: Integrated rice-fish farming is one of the most viable, reliable and profitable of any farming enterprise. It contributes immensely to the economic empowerment of many families especially in the rural communities. It enables the farmer to be productive all year round and fully maximize its production.

Aim: To identify the sources of information available to farmers on integrated rice-fish farming and assess the level of use of integrated rice-fish farming technologies by the farmers in the study area.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study. 243 farmers were assessed to ascertain their sources of information and level of use of integrated rice-fish farming technologies in the study area.

Methodology: Primary data were obtained from the field using structured questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions that address the objectives of the study. Farmers were asked to identify the sources of information and the level of use of integrated rice-fish technology on a 4- Likert scale.

Results: The result revealed that 78.2% of the farmers got information on integrated rice-fish farming technology using phone, 75.0% said they heard about it on radio, 70.0% got theirs from friends /relatives while 67.9% indicated getting their information from co-operatives. It revealed that the farmers used the following technologies: use of net guard (M = 3.17) skills in harvesting of fish before rice (M=3.17) stocking of carp fish (M=3.09) use of organic fertilizers (M=3.05) transplanting the rice seedling (M=2.95) and use of pest and disease resistant varieties (M=2.85), while technologies like use of bamboo guard (M=1.97) skills in harvesting of rice before fish (M=1.96) stocking of tilapia fish (M=1.93) construction of trenches (M=1,88) and use of terracing (M=1.86) are not used.

Conclusion: Most of the farmers (78.2%) got their information from the electronic media such as mobile phones and radio. Use of net guard (M= 3.17) skills in harvesting of fish before the rice (M= 3.17), stocking of carp fish (M= 3.09) and use of organic fertilizers (M= 3.05) were the technologies mostly used by the farmers.

 Recommendations: For effective communication and information dissemination to be sustained on rice-fish farming, the Federal and State governments should support the farmers by providing mobile phones and radios because farmers will always prefer information channels that are cheaper, accessible and convenient.