Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Assessment of Selected Annona muricata L. Germplasm in Sri Lanka

S. H. M. R. N. P. Samaradiwakara, W. L. G. Samarasinghe, P. G. S. Shantha, K. G. C. N. Jayarathna, P. Dehigaspitiya, N. M. Ubeysekera

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v7i130084

Annona muricata L. commonly known as soursop is an underutilized fruit crop species in Sri Lanka gaining much importance in the recent past due to its high nutritional and medicinal value. Soursop germplasm collections are available within the country and assessing the genetic diversity is needed to proceed with conservation, detecting promising lines and breeding programs. This study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of 50 soursop individuals using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. The study was conducted at Plant Genetic Resources Centre of the Department of Agriculture in Gannoruwa during 2017 to 2019. DNA of the 50 soursop samples were extracted using CTAB method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was carried using 13 Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers. PCR products were visualized using 1.5 percent Agarose gel electrophoresis under the Biorad Gel documentation system and analyzed using POPGENE 1.31. PCR amplified 139 bands from 13 ISSR markers among which 118 were found to be polymorphic. The polymorphic band percentage was 85 percent while as the average number of bands observed (Na) was 1.8489 and the effective allele number (Ne) was 1.5377. The Nei's gene diversity index (h) was 0.3079. The Shannon Information Index (I) found to be 0.4556. Dendrogram constructed based on the UPGMA method clustered the studied accessions into four major clusters at 80 percent similarity level. Results revealed considerable degree of genetic diversity existed within the studied soursop germplasms at Sri Lanka. Existing genetic diversity within soursop individuals will serve as germplasm bank to identify and utilize potential germplasm resources for conservation and future breeding programs to develop quality soursop varieties in Sri Lanka.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Fertilizer Use among Arable Farmers in Yola South, North-Eastern Part of Nigeria

A. A. Sadiq, Salamatu Ali Shuwa, Alice Daniel

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v7i130085

Aim: This paper aimed to assess the effectiveness of fertilizer use among arable farmers in Yola South North-eastern part of Nigeria.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted at Yola South LGA of Adamawa State, Nigeria during September, 2019-July, 2020.

Methodology: Four (4) areas were selected in the area (Yolde pate, Bole, Mbamaba and Wuro-chekke) where 40 farmers were randomly selected from each farm location totaling to 160 farmers. The data obtained through administered questionnaires were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and effectiveness Test Value (ETV) method respectively.

Results: The result shows that soil type, vegetation cover and soil type were the most indicators of soil fertility among farmers in the area where most farmers used organic fertilizers than the inorganic or combined except at Wuor-chekke farm location. Broadcasting method of fertilizer application was found to be mostly adopted in the area. Similarly, Organic fertilizer was assessed to be highly effective (HE) in all the farm location except at Wuro-chekke while inorganic fertilizer was HE at Bole and the combine used of organic and inorganic fertilizers appeared HE except at Mbamba farm location. Moreover, broadcasting method was HE at Yolde pate and Wuro-chekke farm locations while band placing was HE at Bole and spot method found to be moderately effective (ME) except at Mbamba appeared not effective (NE) respectively.

Conclusion: Intensive training to the farmers on modern strategies and techniques on fertilizer use through extension services should be conducted and timely provision of fertilizers to the target farmers should be considered by the relevant agencies in Yola area and the environment for the sustainable and profitable food production for the growing population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Post-harvest Losses among Vegetable Farmers in Mbaitoli Local Government Area in Imo State

Egwuonwu, Helen Adeola

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v7i130086

The study analyzed factors influencing post harvest losses among vegetables farmers in Mbaitoli Local Government Area in Imo state, Nigeria. Specifically the study ascertained the kind of vegetables produced; determined the quantity of output production of vegetables; determined the causes of post harvest losses among vegetable farmers; examined the factors affecting post harvest losses of vegetable; ascertained the effect of post harvest losses among vegetable farmers and identify possible strategies that can reduce losses among vegetable farmers. Multi-stage random sampling procedure was used in the selection of ninety eight (98) respondents and a set of structured questionnaire was administered on them to obtain information. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive (frequency, percentages and chart) and inferential (multiple regression) statistics. Result showed that majority (51%) of the farmers cultivated leafy vegetables and the average quantity of vegetable produced was 142.35 kg. Farmers identified major causes of post harvest losses as pest (94.9%), disease (81.6%), lack of storage facility (80.6%) and poor handling of vegetable (71.4%). The major factors affecting post harvest losses were improper handling (87.8%), lack of credit facility (86.7%) and the possible strategies to reduce post harvest were use of improved processing and preservation method (91.8%), access to appropriate technology (88.8%), adequate post harvest handling (87.8%). The study recommends that, the extension agents through the aids of federal government, should train rural, urban and sub- urban farmers on post harvest, processing and marketing technology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combating Flash Flood in Haor Areas: Strategic Adaptation towards Sustainable Crop Production

Smita Dash Baishakhy, Mohammad Ashraful Islam, Md. Ruhul Amin, Fahmida Husain Choudhury

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v7i130087

In Haor areas of Bangladesh agricultural activities are limited to four - five months of a year due to water logged condition and boro rice is the prominent crop grown within this short time span in dry season. But farmers often had to face almost total crop failure due to recurrent flash flood events. This paper attempts to evaluate Haor farmers’ adaptation through adopting strategies in securing boro rice from flash flood damage at pre-mature and mature stages. To reach this objective, a pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected 115 Haor farmers from February to May, 2020 while Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were also done as necessary during the research work. Results revealed that cultivation of short duration boro rice variety ranked top followed by practicing varietal diversification and early harvesting of rice (at 80% maturity) as the most significant adaptive strategies in securing boro rice. Obtained results also highlighted the possibilities of attaining desirable resilience through change in the adaptation behavior of Haor farmers’ if the identified farming practices are widely promoted and adopted. Hence, any development plans for Haor area should integrate local knowledge with modern strategies thus resulting a location specific sustainable flash flood adaptation policy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vermicompost-enriched Substrate Improves the Production of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)

Salma Sarker, Abdullah Hel Mafi, Nirod Chandra Sarker, Rumana Momotaz, Bodrun Nessa Shompa, F. M. Aminuzzaman

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 38-49
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v7i130088

Aims: We investigated most suitable substrate (wheat and rice straw) enriched with vermicompost and their different levels (10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) for enhancing production of milky mushroom. 

Study Design: The experiment was designed by following single factor Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). 

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a mushroom culture house to observe the growth and productivity of highly potential milky mushroom by using different vermicompost enriched substrate during March-October, 2017

Methodology: Based on the different treatment combinations the quantity of substrate and vermicompost on volume basis were used per packet with 5% spawn. Coco dust was used as casing material. After incubation, matured fruiting bodies were harvested and data were recorded on growth and yield parameters.

Results: The addition of vermicompost with rice substrates improved the diameter of pelius 32-74%, thickness of pelius 26- 60%, diameter of stipe 24-55% and length of stipe 25 to 95% relative to the unsupplemented substrate. Similarly, vermicompost supplementation with wheat straw substrates increased the diameter of pelius 27-71%, thickness of pelius 11- 40%, diameter of stipes 21-56% and length of stipe 17- 72% relative to the unsupplemented substrate at any harvest. Supplementation of vermicompost reduced the duration for spawn run 11-55% in wheat straw and 11- 49%  in rice straw compared with non-supplemented one. Furthermore, pin head initiation became quicker 26- 66% in wheat straw and 15- 61% in rice straw. In addition, total number of fruiting body increased from 6- 82% in wheat straw supplemented with different doses of vermicompost, while rice straw increased total number of fruiting body ranged from 17- 39% compared to unsupplemented one. The addition of 10%, 25%, 50% and 75% levels of vermicompost with wheat straw increased the fresh yield of C. indica by 23%, 54%, 121% and 73%, respectively compared to wheat straw alone; however, similar levels of vermicompost with rice straw increased the fresh yield of C. indica by 31% , 63%, 112% and 87%, respectively compared to rice straw alone. The biological efficiency of C. indica also did exhibit significant differences ranged between 65-160% among different levels of vermicompost supplementation with rice and wheat straw substrates.

Conclusion: The result revealed that increasing the vermicompost level lead to a less biological efficiency and yield, but it remains higher than the control (straw alone). It is additionally conceivable that the application of vermicompost to substrates with lower levels would provide an even better yield, without adversely affecting the bioefficiency of the harvested mushrooms. These judges, however, need more work to validate reliability.