Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Financial Viability and Supply Chain Management of Organic and Conventional Farming in Telangana

G. Manasa, P. Radhika, . Seema, K. Supriya

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v7i330094

Increased awareness about the ill effects of synthetic chemicals in the food chain, the falling dividends from the conventional production system and growing consumer preference for pesticide-free food have paved the way for organic agriculture as an alternative to the conventional system of farming which solely depends on chemicals. The study aims to compare and analyze the financial viability of selected crops viz., paddy and cotton under organic and conventional farming and the analysis of different supply chains involved in the marketing of organic and conventional food products. The present study was carried out in Jangaon district, which is very well known in the organic farming sector of Telangana state. For the study during the period of 2019-20, ten organic and ten conventional farmers had been selected for each selected crop using a simple random sampling technique. Thus, the sample consists of 20 organic farmers and 20 conventional farmers. The data collected from respondents were analysed using the cost concepts, budgeting technique and Acharya’s approach according to the objectives. The results indicated that the cost of cultivation of conventional crops are more than organic crops due to the increased usage of expensive chemicals in conventional farming. The farmers realize a high premium price for their organic produce and also high net returns, thus have higher financial viability in organic farming. The supply chain of organic produce involving Farmer Producer Organisation (FPO) has high efficiency because it offers the producers a major share in consumer’s rupee and establishes a direct link between the producer and consumer. The study has revealed that organic farming gives better income to the farmers, if marketing linkages are established and they can fetch a better price for organic products than conventional products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Evaluation of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars in Northwest and Central of Mexico

Raúl Leonel Grijalva-Contreras, Rubén Macías-Duarte, Arturo López-Carvajal, Fabián Robles-Contreras, Manuel de Jesús Valenzuela-Ruiz

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v7i330095

A strategy to improve productivity in olive orchards is the evaluation of cultivars that respond better to the environmental growing conditions The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the yield potential and oil quality of five olive cultivars (Arbequina, Coratina, Manzanilla, Arbosana and Mission) in two regions of Mexico. The experiment was carried out during two consecutive years 2018 and 2019. At Northwest Region the five olive cultivars were planted in 2013 at a spacing of 10 x 5 m (having 200 trees ha-1) and Central Region olive cultivars were planted in 2013 at spacing of 6 x 6 m (278 trees ha-1) and both locations under drip irrigation systems. The variables evaluated were:  yield, fruit weight, oil content and oil quality (acidity, peroxide value and absorbance K232 and K270). The experiment was analyzed using a randomized complete block design with four replications. 

Our results showed high differences between locations, Arbequina was the cultivar with the highest yield at the fifth and sixth years of planting with an average of 48.8 kg tree-1 at Northwest Region and only 15.5 kg tree-1 at Central Region. The cultivar with the highest oil content in the Northwest Region was Manzanilla with an average of 12.3% and the lowest for Arbequina with only 9.3%, while at Central Region the cultivar with the highest oil content was Coratina with 20.2% and the lowest in Manzanilla with 16.1%. Extra virgin olive oil was obtained in all the cultivars in both locations according to chemical analysis. Finally, it is necessary to continue with the evaluation of other varieties with resistance to high temperatures at Northwest Region and resistance to frost at Central Region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Earthing up and Pruning Systems on Growth and Yield of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon.)

I. K. Keter, G. Oloo- Abucheli, M. Muraya

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 18-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v7i330096

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) is an important crop cultivated and consumed worldwide. It provides wide variety of nutrients with many health-related benefits like, protection against cancer, maintains blood pressure and reduces blood glucose level in people with diabetes. Despite the importance of tomato, its growth and yield is limited by choice of cultural practices mainly earthing up and pruning system. There is also limited knowledge on the effect of integrating pruning and earthing up on tomato growth and yield. This study investigated the effect of integration of pruning and earthing up on the growth and yield of tomato. A split-plot experimental design, arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design, with three replications was used. The study investigated two factors i.e. pruning system in the main plot (single stem, double stem, and triple stem) and earthing up in sub-plots. (0 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm. The findings of the study revealed that earthing up and pruning system had a significant (p ˂ .05) effect on plant height and stem girth diameter at 45, 52, and 59 days after transplanting. The single stem pruning system and earthing up to 30 cm gave the tallest plant height with an average plant height of 69.80 cm in cultivation 1 and 71.50 cm in cultivation 2. Single stem pruning system and earthing up to 30 cm gave the largest stem girth diameter with mean stem girth diameter of 2.16 cm in cultivation 1 and 2.25 cm in cultivation 2. Triple stem pruning system, earthing up to 30 cm recorded the highest number of marketable fruits with 64500 fruits/hectare in cultivation 1 and 64333 fruits/hectare in cultivation 2. To improve tomato growth and development which consequently improves marketable yields, farmers are encouraged to consider triple stem pruning system with earthing up to level 30 cm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Pruning on Growth, Fruit Yield, Nutritional Quality and Nutrient Uptake of Two Okra Varieties (Abelmoschus esculentus)

M. N. Tswanya, U. Amuzie, O. Babatunde, A. Akinwale, T. Bashiru, C. Kyuka, I. Abubakar

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 31-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v7i330097

Field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Biotechnology Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Garki-Abuja in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons to evaluate response of pruning on growth, fruit yield, nutritional quality and nutrient uptake of okra. The experiment had eight treatment combinations viz: Two okra varieties (Clemson spinless and Gungo Local) and four pruning rates (0, 1 stem, 2 stems and 3 stems), replicated three times. The experiment was factorial fitted into Randomized Complete Block Design. Data were collected on number of leaves per plant, number of fruits, green fruit yield, nutritional quality and nutrient uptake. Data was analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) M.STAT package and treatment means compared using least significant difference (LSD) at 5% probability level. Pruning is beneficial to performance of okra. Plants with 2 stems pruning produced the highest fruit yield (11.60 t ha-1) in 2018 while control plots had the least values (1.80 t ha-1, 1.60 t ha-1) in 2017 and 2018, respectively. It could be concluded that 2 stems pruning increased fruit yield of okra and Clemson spinless performed better than Gungo Local variety and could be recommended for farmers within the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-microbial Effect of Cocoa Leaf Extracts on Botryodiplodia theobromae; Leading Causative Organism of Crown Rot Disease of Banana (Musa acuminata)

Patrick Kumah, Lartey Emmanuel Nunoo, Odum Bismark

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 40-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2020/v7i330098

An investigation was carried to assess in-vitro management of crown rot disease on Banana using extracts of cocoa leaves. The causative organism (Botryodiplodia theobromae) was sub cultured and the concentration determined through microbial count. Different cocoa leaves extracts were prepared using two different solvents. A conventional fungicide known as Mancozeb was used as a positive control and the nutrient broth only served as negative controls to help in assessment of the antimicrobial effect of the cocoa leave extracts. Phenolic Methanol Extracts (PME), Crude Cocoa Leaves Aqueous Extracts (CCAE) and Mancozeb were employed to prepare aqueous solutions through serial dilution with varied concentration. The nutrient broth (100 µL of double strength), 100 µL each of the plant extract concentrations, and 20 µL of inoculums were dispensed in a sterile micro-titre plate containing 96 wells. Incubation of the micro-titre plate was carried out at a temperature of 37°C for 1 day (24 hours). Susceptibility or otherwise of the microorganism (B. theobromae) from four sample stations was analyzed with 20 µL of a 5% solution of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT. The presence of blue-black wells indicated the growth of B. theobromae. The experiment was conducted in triplicates for PME (refined), CCAE and Mancozeb. The minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) of PME (refined) that inhibited the growth of B. theobromae collected from four different locations were 5mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml and 2.5 mg/ml respectively for B. theobromae (B1)(Offinso), B. theobromae (B2)(Effiduase), B. theobromae (B4)(Kejetia) and B. theobromae (B5)(Ejisu) which was lower compared to the MICs of CCAE which was 30 mg/ml for the four sample stations. Comparatively, the MIC of the PME (5 mg/ml, 2.5 m g/ml, 10 mg/ml and 2.5mg/ml) was almost equivalent to the MIC of the conventional fungicide (Mancozeb) (2.5 mg/ml) for all the four sample stations of B. theobromae.