Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity of Insects Associated with Banana in Banana Xanthomonas Wilt Epidemic Areas of Western Kenya

Johnson Kisera Kwach, Peter Sungu Nyakomitta

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i230137

Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) caused by "Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum″ (Xcm) is a disease that devastates bananas production. The Xcm kills banana plants quickly, spreads rapidly and causes loss of upto 100%. The BXW disease spread on banana occurs mainly through insect vectors which use banana male flower for nectar. A study on banana insect diversity and abundance in epidemic areas of BXW was done in western Kenya. The objective was to determining the diversity of insects associated with banana in BXW epidermic areas in western Kenya including Busia, Kakamega and Siaya counties. A collection of all types of insects visiting inflorecence parts of banana and on the same inflorescence DNA samples were captured by 2 minutes dipstick to confirm the presence of Xcm using PCR procedures and eclectroforesis gel picture. Insects were positively identified by entomologist with aid of a dicotomous key and pictures. Significantly a diversified insects were found to be associated with banana in BXW in epidemic areas. The Drosophilidae, Apinae and Tephritidae families were most frequently recorded in banana farms. Bees, grass flies, banana fruit flies, flies, wasps, butterflies, beetles, spiders and black ants formed the diversity. Significantly more bees were recorded followed by flies. Isolates from inflorecence samples, positvely confimed the presence of Xcm through eclectroforesis gel picture in the study area in western Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Germination, Vegetative Growth and Flowering Performance of Cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.) in Response to Different Potting Media

Waleed Ahmed, Barkat Ali, Sujon Kumar, Noor-Un-Nisa Memon, Niaz Ahmed Wahocho, Tanveer Fatima Miano, Mehr-Un-Nisa Memon

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i230138

The experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Garden, Department of Horticulture, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan, during the cropping season March 2017 to May 2017. To estimate germination percentage, vegetative growth and flowering performance of Cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.) in response to different potting media. Aim of the research was to evaluate the best potting media and select the best segregating genotype of Cockscomb for superior performance on flowering traits. The trial was laid out in randomized complete block (RCBD) with three replications. The experiment consisted with two genotypes G1 (Amigo Red) and G2 (Prestige scarlet) were planted in different potting media T1 (100% Canal sediment), T2 (75% Canal sediment + 25% FYM), T3 (50% Canal sediment + 50% Coco peat), T4 (25% Canal sediment + 50% bagasse + 25% Coco peat) and T5 (25% Canal sediment + 70% bagasse + 5% Coco peat) in the earthen pots. Our present findings of genotype (G2) in potting media (T4) indicated highest seed germination percentage (87.50%), germination index (1.77), plant height (36.55 cm), seedling vigor index (3394.2), fresh weight of shoot (56.40 g), fresh weight of root (13.35 g), fresh weight of a single flower (16.97 g), days taken to initiate flowering (74.88 days), number of flowers per plant (5.05) and chlorophyll content of leaf (36.08%). To compare mean of the G2 obtained better results in comparison to genotype (G1). The interaction of the genotypes and potting media was highly significant in G2 from the plants grown in (T4) potting media. This study showed that based on the potting media performance of the Cockscomb genotypes found maximum performance in (T4) potting media at Tandojam location. Others potting media along with genotypes and geographical locations might be explored for future research activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Mulching and Watering Frequency on Some Agronomic Performances of Cocoa Plants (Theobroma cacao L.) Produced in Nurseries

Yves Thierry Djoah, Marie-Josèphe Endali Essouma, Emmanuel Kuate Wafo, Alexis Noël Minkate, Bienvenu Désiré Anaba, Audrey Valteri Voula

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 23-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i230139

This study was carried out at Nkoemvone Agricultural Research Station in southern Cameroon, to help cocoa farmers monitor their cocoa nurseries during periods of drought or in areas where water resources are scarce and difficult to access. The objective of this work was to find the production methods for cocoa plants that could use the lowest watering frequencies through straw to ensure optimal growth and development of these plants in the nursery. It was carried out between September 2020 and June 2021 in a randomized complete block design. It comprised eighteen elementary plots, i.e. six treatments repeated three times. The number of cocoa plants tested was 360. That is, 20 plants per treatment. The treatments applied were NMWF1/2 days (control treatment); NMWF1/4 days; NMWF1/6 days; MWF1/2 days; MWF1/4 days and MWF1/6 days. At the end of work, three out of six treatments resulted in better agronomic performance. Firstly, MWF 1/2 days, which had a pH-water of 5.1, 7.97% organic matter, 25.34 cm mean cocoa plant height, 5.63 mm mean stem diameter, 10.97 mean leaf number, 9.26±0. 55 as the average length of the main roots, 52.13±5.70 as the average number of secondary roots, 45.97±2.04 % organic matter content of stems + leaves and 37.86±6.62 % organic matter content of roots at the end of the experiment. Then, there is MWF 1/4 days with 5.8, 6.44 %, 23.42 cm, 5.07 mm, 9.35 cm, 10.45±0.82 cm, 47.32±3.21 cm, 58.41±6.54 %, 47.62± 4.12 % respectively. Finally, NMWF 1/2 days showed 5.6, 5.21 %, 23.30 cm, 4.9 mm, 9.55, 10.15±0.58 cm, 51.75±5.11, 44.63±4.74 % and 28.41±7.67 % respectively in the same period. Although these three treatments resulted in more satisfactory growth and development than the others, we only recommend  MWF 1/4 days treatment to the farmers for the purpose of this work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Homobrassinolide on Growth, Minerals and Vitamins of Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) Rhizome

G. Rajesh, B. V. Vardhini

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i230140

The application of homobrassinolide on the growth, mineral content and vitamin content of Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) rhizome grown in Nizamabad, Telangana State, India was studied. Homobrassinolide application as foliar spray to turmeric on the 20th, 40th and 60th day from sowing resulted in enhanced growth of turmeric rhizome in terms of fresh and dry weights. The promotion of growth was associated with increased levels of minerals in terms of calcium (Ca), Manganese (Mn), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) of turmeric rhizome. Further, the contents of Vitamin B fractions [Thiamine (Vitamin B1), Niacin (Vitamin B2), and Riboflavin (Vitamin B3)] and Vitamin C/Ascorbic Acid of the turmeric rhizome were also found enhanced indicating the ability of homobrassinolide in positively monitoring nutrient value in turmeric rhizome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphate Rock Fertilizer Application on Biomass Production, Nutrient use Efficiency and Yield Parameters of Green Gram (Vigna radiata)

F. K. Mbaka, H. O. Ndukhu, G. O. Oloo-Abucheli, C. T. Kiplangat

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Page 47-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i230141

The research was focused on an ecologically sound and highly production of legumes particularly green gram through the application of Rhizobium and rock phosphate fertilizer. Therefore, biomass production, nutrient use efficiency and yield parameters were determined for two growing seasons (November 2019 - January 2020 and February - April 2020), at Chuka university horticultural research farm. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in green grams can improve sustainable soil fertility management and increased production. In Kenya, green gram is a major source of food security particularly in Tharaka Nithi County. However, green gram yields are usually low due to low phosphorous and nitrogen levels of the soil. A factorial experiment of 2 x 2 x 2 was laid out in a randomized complete block design. There were three factors, varieties (N26-nylon and KS20-uncle), phosphate rock (0 and 30 kg P ha-1) and Rhizobium MEA 716 (0 and 100 g ha-1) making a total of eight treatments which were replicated three times. Soil sampling and analyses were done before planting and after harvesting of green grams. Data on grain yield, total dry biomass, shoot and root dry weights. Phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) were done. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS). Significant means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at probability level of 5 %. Results for both wet and dry seasons indicated that variety KS20 under Rhizobium inoculation and phosphate rock fertilizer (R1P1V2) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher increase in shoot dry biomass (52.01 g plant-1), root dry biomass (7.60 g plant-1), total dry biomass (146.4 g plant-1), number of pods (84 plant-1) and yield (2158 kg ha-1). Also, there was significant (P<0.05) higher phosphorous use efficiency of 279.32 Kg/ha and nitrogen use efficiency of 1732 kg/ha in treatment R1P1V2 over other treatments. From these results it was concluded that variety KS20 (V2) performed better compared to N26 (V1) under combined application of Rhizobium and phosphate rock fertilizer. Hence, based on the findings, for sustainable and improved green gram production farmers in Tharaka Nithi County.