##### Possible Effect on the Recovery of Grafted Mango Seedlings Using Naphthalene Acetic Acid

Myra Anne D. Sugui, Raymund Julius G. Rosales

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 258-261
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4213

The application of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) of different concentrations (25, 50, and 75 ppm) was applied to grafted mango seedlings to identify its effect on callus formation, callus diameter, shoot emergence, and plant survival. NAA effectively reduced the number of days to callus formation, mainly using 75 ppm. Lower than this concentration exhibited a comparable callus formation, the same as the untreated seedlings. The callus diameter, shoot emergence, and plant survival showed no significant effect by applying NAA, even with how high or low the concentration was. Low and higher than the concentrations used, young scions may be used for further investigation. Likewise, other plant growth regulators should be used to hasten the callus development and higher plant recovery rate in grafted mango seedlings.

##### The Effect of Increasing Temperature on Welfare of Plantation Farmers

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i430147

Agricultural productivity is a determining factor in achieving food security in Indonesia. Increase in agricultural productivity yields is strongly influenced by climate change. Extreme climate change has resulted in crop failure due to land drought and flooding. The existence of this incident provides an opportunity to decrease the welfare of farmers, especially plantation farmers in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of temperature on the welfare of plantation farmers in Indonesia. The data used in this study was sourced from the 2018 National Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS) data, with a total of 66,754 households in Indonesia. The analytical method used is Ordinary Least Square (OLS). The results of this study indicate that an increase in temperature causes drought, and has an impact on decreasing agricultural productivity. The decrease in the production of agricultural products certainly reduces the income of farmers, which results in a decrease in the level of welfare of farmers. Government policies in terms of climate engineering are needed, as well as assistance programs for farmers to maintain the welfare of farmers.

##### Bioactivity of Leaf Extract of Phyllantus amarus against Fungal Pathogens Associated with Sweet Orange Rot Disease

C. S. Yusuf, N. N. Zakawa, D. Timon, T. D. Tizhe, P. J. Wazamda

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i430150

This study was carried out to determine disease incidence and control of fungal pathogens associated with rot of sweet orange using Phyllantus amarus leaf extract. Forty sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis var. Valencia) were collected from the markets and taken to the laboratory. Isolation and identification of the fungi were carried out using standard procedures and the efficacy of the leaf extracts of Phyllantus amarus was determined on the isolated fungi. The result of this study showed that four pathogens (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillum expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer) were identified to be associated with the rot. Rot incidence was upto of 35%. Pathogenicity confirmed the characteristic features similar to the original diseased samples. The effect of the leaf extract of Phyllantus amarus on the isolated fungi shows that the rate of inhibition increases with increase in concentration of the P. amarus extract, The P. amarus extract was effective against A. flavus had the highest zone of inhibition (10.667). The inhibition zone was lesser for R. stolonifer among the pathogens (8.333). Sweet orange should be consumed after harvest or can be stored in refrigerator for period of 1=2 weeks. The fruit should be discarded if  any alteration in color or taste of the fruit is noticed as this can be hazardous to human health.

##### Evaluation of Different Fertilizer Types in the Suppression of Root Knot Nematode Infection on Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) in Makurdi, Benue State

I. O. Adepoju, J. I. Oluwatayo, O.V. Ejeba

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 25-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i430151

A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi in the 2020/2021 planting season. To evaluate the effects of different fertilizer types in the control of root knot nematode of sweet potato. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The treatments were Liquid fertilizer (Super gro) and poultry dropping and control which were replicated three times. Before the treatments were applied, soil samples were collected for nematode extraction and the nematodes were extracted in the laboratory using the modified Bearmann tray technique. Super gro and geese droppings were applied at 2 weeks interval and 4 weeks interval. The results show a significant (p<0.05) reduction of root gall index, significant increase in root length, weight of roots and number of roots on the plots treated with fertilizer. This research work recommends the application of poultry droppings for the management of root knot nematode in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

##### Morphological Characterization, Evaluation and Selection of Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L) Genotypes for High Yield

K. R. Rajadurai, S. P. Thamarai Selvi

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 32-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i430153

An experiment was conducted at Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, TNAU, Coimbatore with the objectives viz., i) to study the morphological, flowering, yield parameters of different hibiscus accessions and (ii) to identify the accession with high flower yield with attractive colour. In this experiment, 14 hibiscus genotypes were collected from different places of Tamil Nadu and also from Thrissur, Kerala and these genotypes were evaluated continuously from June, 2014 to Sep, 2019. Among the different accessions the highest plant height was observed in Acc 1 (170.58 cm and the highest number of branches was observed in Acc 3 (14.00) 360 days after pruning. The highest leaf length was observed in Acc 10 (9.00 cm) while the highest bud length was recorded by Acc 1 (4.50 cm) and Acc 4 (4.62 cm). The highest single flower weight was observed in Acc 1 (10.60 g) and the highest flower diameter was observed in Acc 13 (12.37 cm) which was on par with Acc 1 (12.17 cm). Acc. 1(THR 1) was identified for high flower yield (2.10 kg/plant/year).

##### Growth Increment of Tissue Cultured Abaca Seedlings Applied with Conventional Fertilizer and Biostimulant

Christine A. Ramos, K. E. Saludo, O. S. Corpuz

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 37-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i430155

This study was conducted purposely to investigate the growth increment of tissue cultured Abaca seedlings applied with conventional fertilizer and biostimulant. And successfully reject the hypothesis that there is no significant difference on the plant height, pseudostem girth, leaf count per plant, leaf area per plant, shoots length, number of primary roots, and roots length of Abaca to the different combination of conventional and biostimulant fertilizers. And there is no correlation between treatments and parameters.

The application of SDF significantly promoted plant growth and root architecture of Abaca compared with the control, even with a limited amount of mineral nutrient input. Among the four with SDF treatments applied in the study, 100%, 75%, and 2.5g CF combined with SDF proved to be effective in both root development and aboveground growth promotion. There is a positive correlation between treatments and parameters.

##### Constraints in Cultivation of Medicinal Plants in Nagaur District of Rajasthan

Shankar Lal Meghwal

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 49-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i430156

The practice of growing herbs is a very ancient trend, and several studies have been conducted and are still being conducted in this field. It is terrible that we do not seem embarrassed to admit this, even when we are just beginning this practise. It is true that there has never been a complete standardisation of this agricultural certification. Herbs are a good option during this transitional time. It is imperative that you proceed with extreme caution if you plan to engage in agriculture. The present study deals with the problems and prospects in cultivation of Medicinal Plants. The study was conducted in Nagaur district of Rajasthan. A sample study of 11 villages out of ten tehsils of Nagaur district has been done. By selecting 11 sample villages from different tehsils of Nagaur district as primary sources, an attempt has been made to collect data and information and analyse various aspects of problems related to the cultivation of medicinal plants in the area.  In the past years, the surprising changes in the general cropping pattern and the facts related to it have been studied and various dimensions of cultivation of medicinal plants have been studied considering tehsil wise level as the regional base unit. The problem of saline water, lack of surface water resources and problems in propagation of medicinal plants are the major problems faced by the farmers in the study area.

##### Improving Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas) – a Bio-fuel and Multipurpose Crop Production in Sub-Saharan Africa through Appropriate Nursery Media

O. J. Uche, J. O. Adinde, U. J. Anieke, O. G. Nwankwo

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 58-65
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i430157

Physic nut (Jatropha curcas) is a bio-fuel and multipurpose crop that can be used to produce biodiesel, biogas and latex. The toxic substances – curcin and diterpenoids in raw Jatropha leaves and seeds can scare grazing animals away and this suggests the possibility of using the plant as live fence to curb cattle menace which is one of the major constraints facing crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa especially in Nigeria. Despite its nutritive, medicinal and economic values, Jatropha is one of the most neglected crops in Nigeria and in sub-Sahara Africa at large. There is often loss of vigour of Jatropha seedlings due to high seed oil content which results in rancidity and weak seedling growth. An experiment was conducted at Enugu State Polytechnic, Iwollo, Enugu state, Nigeria to determine the appropriate nursery media towards improving the production of Jatropha curcas in sub-Saharan Africa. Four nursery media viz: 3:2:1; 1:2:1; 0:0:1 and; 1:0:0 of top soil, organic manure and river sand respectively, were evaluated. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Data on emergence percentage, seedling height, number of leaves per seedling and seedling girth were collected and analyzed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for CRD. The treatment means with significant differences were separated using least significant difference at 0.05 probability level. The results showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the treatments in emergence percentage of Jatropha curcas. However, there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the treatments in seedling height and stem girth with the highest values obtained in 1:2:1 of top soil, poultry droppings and river sand, respectively and the least in 0:0:1 of top soil, poultry droppings and river sand, respectively. It could be concluded that the use of 1:2:1 of top soil, organic manure and river sand, respectively significantly improved seedling growth of Jatropha curcas compared to the other treatments and could therefore be recommended for Jatropha curcas nursery for improved production of the crop in sub-Sahara Africa.

##### Tomato Cultivation and Farmers’ Knowledge on Selected Foliar Fungal Diseases in Agro- Ecological Zones of Kirinyaga County, Kenya

Ogolla O. Fredrick, Onyango O. Benson, Muraya M. Moses

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 66-80
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i430158

Diseases are hindrance to tomato production in Kirinyaga County, Kenya. However, information on farmer’s knowledge about tomato diseases to warrant pesticide usage is scanty. Further, there is information gap on disease predisposing factor such as varietal choice and seed source. This study assessed the tomato farmers’ socio characteristic, varieties grown, seed source and knowledge of selected foliar fungal disease among tomato farmers in agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Kirinyaga County. A cross sectional survey design that in cooperated purposive sampling and snowballing approaches was adopted in the study. Data were collected from 120 tomato farmers using structured questionnaires. A chi square (Ӽ2) test was used to examine the association between different variables at α= 0.05 using SAS version 9.4. No significant association (p > 0.05) was observed between gender of farmers and AEZ. Nonetheless, there were more men (83.33%) than women (16.67%). Terminator F1 variety was popular among farmers (25%). No significance (p > 0.05) association was observed between source of tomato planting material and AEZs. However, Agrovet was a popular seed source among farmers (40%). The reasons for choosing a particular tomato variety was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the AEZ with 40.83% of farmers preferring tomato varieties with good marketability traits such as fruit size. Farmers’ knowledge of causative agent of early blight, late blight and Septoria leaf spot was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with AEZs. The source of farmer’s knowledge on tomato foliar fungal diseases was not significantly (p > 0.05) associated with AEZ. However, farming experiences was a popular source of knowledge (51.67%) among farmers. Inability of some farmers to identify tomato diseases negates the efforts on disease management in tomato production in Kirinyaga County. Therefore, measures such as coordinated education on tomato diseases is necessary to empower farmers on disease causes and identification to enhance disease management and improve tomato yields in Kirinyaga County in Kenya.

##### Effect of Computer-assisted Instruction in Agricultural Science: A Focus on Colleges of Education Students in Ghana

Collins Agyei Menka, Bismark Osei-Mensuoh

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 81-88
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i430159

This study examined how computer-assisted instruction (CAI) affected how agricultural science was taught and learned in colleges of education. From the Ashanti and Western North regions of Ghana, two colleges of education were chosen using a purposeful selection technique. 350 pre-service teachers from the chosen colleges made up the study's population. Scores from the pre-and post-tests for the pupils were submitted to a quasi-experimental design. While the students in the control group were taught the same concepts using the traditional method, the students in the experimental group learned agricultural concepts through computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The traditional mode of instruction included lectures, group discussions, and question and answer sessions. The study's results demonstrated that pre-service teachers who received CAI performed better than their counterparts who received traditional classroom teaching. Recommendations about the necessity of creating pertinent CAI packages for teaching agriculture in Ghanaian colleges of education were made based on the research findings.

##### The Role of Marginal Farmers' Farming Enterprises in Ensuring Household Food Security

Humayun Kobir, Md. Omar Kayess

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 89-96
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i430160

The goal of this study was to ascertain how marginal farmers' farming operations impacted household food security. Additionally, efforts were undertaken to identify the challenges marginal farmers faced in attaining household food safety. Due to this, the study was carried out in three randomly chosen villages in the Rajbari district's Baliakandhi upazila. In these three communities, out of 500 marginal farmers, 26% of the populace was randomly selected. Data was acquired through direct interviews with marginal farmers between January 5 and February 20, 2009. The majority of marginal farmers (51%) fell into the medium group in terms of the contribution of farming enterprises to domestic food safety, while 37% fell into the low category. More over half of the family's food requirements were still unmet by the farming operations, which only met 40% of them annually. The biggest percentage of age (42%) of the four farming enterprise categories came from crops alone. Among the ten traits of the marginal peasants, the size of the farm and the yearly family income were positively connected, whereas the size of the family, the annual nutritional demands of the family, and cropping intensity practiced were negatively correlated. The remaining traits were not significantly correlated with how much farming operations contributed to household food security. Lack of suitable land for farming, poor training facilities, and ignorance of various facets of better farming enterprises were the main challenges marginal farmers faced in achieving household food security.

##### Effect of Different Types of Mulches on Yield of Pumpkin in Salt Affected Soil

Amarendranath Biswas, Ajay Kumar Biswas, G. M. Mostafizur Rahman

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 97-102
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4197

For reducing soil salinity and obtaining a sustainable yield, a low-cost and farmer-friendly method is required for pumpkin, a well-liked vegetable. Accordingly, a field experiment was carried out in Salinity Management and Research Center, Soil Resource Development Institute, Batiaghata, Khulna during Kharif-1 season of 2021 to investigate the effect of different types of mulches on soil salinity and yield of pumpkin. The experiment includes three treatments viz. no mulch (control), straw mulch and mulching paper. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. Soil salinity was recorded at 30 days intervals. All mulching materials effectively reduced the salt accumulation in the root zone. After three months of seed sowing, the highest soil salinity (11.32 dS/m) and lowest soil salinity (6.24 dS/m) were found at no mulch (control) and mulching paper treatment respectively in the month of May. Mulching treatments markedly increased the growth and yield attributes of pumpkins. The highest value of three growth parameters i.e., fruit length (26.92 cm), fruit diameter (94.09 cm) and fruit size (2037 cm2) was found on mulching paper as compared to control. Again, the highest flesh thickness (3.94 cm), fruit weight (4.73 kg) and yield (31.18 t/ha) were recorded at mulching paper treatment whereas the lowest yield (16.68 t/ha) was found at no mulch (control). The results revealed that the use of mulching paper decreased salinity and also increased the yield of pumpkin in saline soil. These findings suggest that the application of mulching paper not only reduces soil salinity but also increases the yield of pumpkins.

##### Chemical Composition Changes of Main Active Components Accompanying the Conversion of Some Essential Oils (EO) into Essential Oils Nanoemulsion (EONE)

Zeinab A. Abd Elhafez

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 103-111
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4198

Four essential oils [Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L, Fam: Lamiaceae), Geranium, (Pelargonium graveolens, Fam: Geraniaceae), Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, Fam: Poaceae) and Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. Fam: Lamiaceae)] were selected to be converted into essential oil nanoemulsions (EONE). The four oils were analyzed in their natural (EO) and nano form (EONE) using GC-MS, and the results showed a significant increase in the percentage of the main components of the four oils in their nano form (EONE). The results also indicated an increase in the total content of TPC phenols (12.91, 12.04, 13.78, 12.88 (mg GAE/g)) respectively, as well as an increase in the percentage DPPH% (48.22, 36.21, 44.68 and 30.83%) respectively in the four oils. The results showed that the conversion EO to EONE for the four oils under study had preserved their physical and chemical properties.

##### Mycorrhizal Inoculation Effect on Water Deficit Tolerance of Cashew Seedlings (Anacardium occidentale L.) and Soil Nutrients Availability

Alèdi Assih, Amen Yawo Nenonene, Atalaèsso Bokobana

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 112-122
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4199

This research aims to evaluate the effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in improving the resilience of cashew seedlings to water deficit and soil nutritional status. The split-plot experimental design was used. The treatments consist of two factors, the two-level water regime (30% useful water reserve and 70% useful water reserve) in main plots and the three-level inoculation (no inoculation, Glomus mosseae and Glomus aggregatum) in subplots. Each treatment is replicated nine times. The study was conducted at Agronomic Experimentation Station of the University of Lomé between June to November 2020. Induction of deficit hydric started three months after the setting up of the trial and lasted two months. At the end of the water shortage cycle, growth parameters were measured and leaf and soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Parameters assessed include mycorrhization rate, relative water content, leaf proline content, malondialdehyde content, mycorrhizal dependency, plant biomass and mineral content of the soil. The results show good mycorrhization rate, 70.86% for Glomus aggregatum and 54.92% for Glomus mosseae with mycorrhiza dependency of 12.87% and 11.74% respectively. Mycorrhizal inoculation reduced water stress symptoms in addition to the plant's intrinsic protective mechanisms. This was reflected in lower leaf proline and malondialdehyde content and improved relative water content of stressed but inoculated plants compared to uninoculated plants.                           The AMF also improved the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil, which resulted in better growth of inoculated plants under both water stress and normal watering conditions. The overall assessment of the research suggested that AMF can be used to improve cashew seedlings resistance against drought and to improve their growth through improvement of soil nutrient availability.

##### Bulb Size Effects on Flowering and Bulb Production of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Single

Md. Mohimenul Islam, M. Monjurul Alam Mondal, Md. Selim Reza, Md. Jahid Hasan, Md. Shah Abdullah Al Mamun, Md. Kawsar Alam Nadim

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 123-128
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4200

A field experiment was executed under sub-tropical conditions during the period from April 2020 to March 2021 to observe the effects of bulb sizes on the flower and bulb yield of tuberose cv. single. The experiment consisted of three bulb sizes namely, a small-sized bulb (1.0-1.5 cm in diameter); a medium-sized bulb (1.6-2.5 cm in diameter) and large sized bulb (2.6-3.0 cm in diameter). Results disclosed that plant height, the number of leaves plant-1, leaf length and breadth, the number of lateral shoots plant-1, production of bulbs plant-1, bulb length and diameter, bulb yield both plant-1 and hectare-1, length of rachis, spike length and diameter, the number of florets spike-1 and flower yield both spike-1 and hectare-1 were increased with the increment of bulb sizes. The longest plant, highest leaf production, larger leaf, bulb production plant-1, bulb size and bulb yield both plant-1 and hectare-1, rachis length, spike length and diameter, number of flowers spike-1, flower yield both spike-1 and hectare-1 were recorded in large sized mother bulb. In contrast, the lowest above the studied parameters were obtained in small-sized mother bulbs. So, large-sized bulbs can be used for commercial production of flowers and bulb of single cv. of tuberose.

##### Quality Assessment of Mixed Pickle (Carrot, Pea and Ginger) Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria

Iwarika Marlin R. Rymbai, A. K. Chaurasiya

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 129-135
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4201

“Studies on preparation and quality evaluation of mixed pickle of carrot, pea and ginger” was made with seven treatments and three replications with the equal proportion of carrot, pea and ginger (500 gm each), Salt 10% and lakadong turmeric powder of 10 gm for all treatments with the objective to access the physico-chemico characteristics of fresh vegetables as well as stored mixed pickle at normal room temperature. The biochemical and sensory changes were analysed at monthly interval of initial day, 30 days and 60 days. During storage the TSS, total sugar, acidity, ascorbic acid, β- carotene acid content decreased gradually. The prepared mixed pickle was judged by the 15 panellists during the organoleptic test where using Five-Point hedonic scale in which treatment T7 (2% lemon juice + 2% acetic acid + mustard oil (250 ml) + red chilli (20 g) recorded the maximum value with 4.53 followed by treatment T5 (2% acetic acid + red chilli powder (20 g) + mustard oil (250 ml) with 4.32 up to 60 days of storage. Overall assessment of quality revealed that with respect to conjugal study of all the parameters of total soluble solid, total sugar, acidity and ascorbic acid and β- carotene, the treatment T5 prepared with (2% acetic acid + red chilli powder (20 g) + mustard oil (250 ml) proved considerably superior over other treatments with the maximum acceptability.

##### Simulation and Construction of a Solar Powered Smart Irrigation System Using Internet of Things (IoT), Blynk Mobile App

Samson Dauda Yusuf, Salam-Layode Dupe Comfort, Ibrahim Umar, Abdulmumini Zubairu Loko

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 136-147
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4202

Aims: To simulate and construct a solar powered smart irrigation system using Blynk Mobile App.

Study Design: Experimental design through simulation studies and internet of things.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria, between July 2021 and March 2022.

Methodology: The system was simulated using Proteus ISIS Version 8.6. It consists of two main units that is transmitter and receiver. The transmitter consists of a sensor circuit that senses the soil moisture, humidity and temperature. Then the Node MCU microcontroller collects the data and sent to the Blynk Mobile App (Receiver). The circuit was tested at two different conditions of the soil; Wet soil and Dry soil.

Results: Output performance analysis when the water level in soil (Moisture) was high, indicated Temperature value 28.3°C, Humidity 72%, and the Pump was OFF. When the water level in soil was mild, temperature was 60°C, Humidity 68%, and pump was turned ON. The pump is activated to switch ON as far as the water reservoir is having enough water and will switch OFF when the required level of moisture in the soil is achieved. The solar power ensured constant power supply, while the Blynk Mobile App ensured real time data monitoring by the Farmer even when he is far away from the farm.

Conclusion: This system is an improve irrigation system that supports low water and electricity consumption as well as efficient monitoring for increase farmers’ output.

##### Effects of Poultry Manure, Urban Waste Compost and NPK-20-10-10 on the Growth, Yield and Shelf-Life of Two Varieties of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

Asafor Henry Chotangui, Marie Solange Mandou, Honore Beyegue-Djonko, , Primus Azinwi Tamfuh, Delphine Atabontsa, Swirri Christabel Shu Waa, Franck Junior Ngandjui Tchapga, Eric Bertrand Kouam

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 148-160
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4203

Organic and inorganic farm inputs in the form of fertilizers is a management practice to improve soil fertility for the growth and development of cultivated crops. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth, yield and shelf-life response of cucumber (Classico F1 and Poinsett-76) to fertilizer applications. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in split plots with three repetitions of the treatments; Control (To: No fertilizer application), poultry manure (T1:20t          ha-1), urban waste compost (T2:20t ha-1), NPK-20-10-10 (T3:0.7t ha-1), poultry manure (10t ha-1)+NPK-20-10-10 (0.35t ha-1) (T4), poultry manure (10t ha-1)+urban waste compost (10t ha-1) (T5), urban waste compost (10t ha-1)+NPK-20-10-10 (0.35t ha-1) (T6). Collected data on growth and yield variables from emergence till harvest were analyzed for variation in R version 4.0.1. Results showed that variety and fertilizer had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all growth variables with Classico F1 variety recording the highest mean values for all growth and yield variables. T1 recorded the highest in all growth variables (vine length, No. of leaves and stem diameter), except for the leaf area in T5 of Classico F1 (404.20 cm2) with the lowest in T0 of Poinsett-76 (87.87cm2). Variety, fertilizer treatments and interactions showed significant effects (P < 0.05) on yield variables. Classico F1 was superior to Poinsett-76, yielding 31.91tha-1 in T1 while Poinsett-76 produced 20.36tha-1 in the same treatment. The lowest yield was recorded in the control treatments (4.45 tha-1 for Poinsett-76 and 7.55 tha-1 for Classico F1). Shelf-life evaluation showed the highest weight loss (20%) in fruits obtained in NPK-20-10-10 treatments within 21 days of storage. These results revealed that the integration of poultry manure or urban waste compost and chemical fertilizer (NPK-20-10-10) improves the growth and yield of cucumber as well as the shelf-life of harvested fruits in the western highlands of Cameroon.

##### Evaluation of Fungicides against Downy Mildew (Peronospora destructor Berk) of Onion (Allium cepa) in Bale Zone, South Eastern Ethiopia

Mohammedamin Abdurezake, Getachew Asefa

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 161-168
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4204

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of tested fungicides against downy mildew of onion and determine the appropriate interval of fungicides application.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out down in randomized complete block design with three replications for each treatments.

Place and Duration of Study:  The experiment was carried out in farmers field of Aloshe village; Goba district of Bale zone in 2018/2019 during “Bona Season”.

Methodology: Locally available onion variety and two tested fungicides (Mancozeb (Mancozeb 80 Wp) and Ridomil (Ridomil Gold MZ 68WG) were used. Locally available variety of onion was planted in a plot size of 3m x 2.4m with three replications. Each two fungicides were applied at interval of seven day, fourteen and twenty one day interval including unapplied fungicide plot as control.

Results: The result indicated that, both fungicides (Mancozeb and Ridomil) were effectively reduces the severity level of the disease. The higher plant height(42.5cm), bulb weigh (289g), total weight of the bulbs (114Qt/ha) and lower severity (8.35%) were recorded from weekly application of Ridomil, fourteen day application of Ridomil and weekly application interval of Mancozeb. The higher marginal rate of return of 2833.45% and 1999.07% were recorded from weekly and fourteen applications of Mancozeb and Ridomil respectively.

Conclusion: The minimum application frequency of three times of Ridomil in fourteen days and weekly interval application of Mancozeb were effective against downy mildew and profitable.

##### Diversity among Morphological Traits of Segregating Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] Genotypes in Umudike, Nigeria

Gamaliel I. Harry, Ulasi, J. Ifeanyi, Okoiseh G. Edith

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 169-179
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4205

Genotypes of the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) normally exhibit high variability in their morphological characters. A field experiment was carried out in 2017 at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria to assess the morphological diversity among the population of 68 first filial generation (F1) sweet potato genotypes (Ligri PC) derived from seeds produced through poly cross systems from the International Potato Center, Kumasi, Ghana, including two local check varieties (UMUSPO3 and TIS87/0087). A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used to set up this experiment. The morphology descriptor was used to evaluate the genotypes of sweet potatoes on sixteen characters that covered both folial and fresh storage root morphology. The data were then subjected to an analysis of variance to identify any differences between the measured morphological parameters and agronomic variables. Using cluster analysis, it was established that all of the genotypes could be categorized into four distinct groups based on their physical characteristics. Consequent, a vast gene pool would provide for effective recombination to create a viable sweetpotato variety with high agricultural value.

##### Productive and Economic Potential Assessment of Maize (Zea mays L.) Varieties under Fertilizers Influence in the Coastal Zone of Togo

Mihikouwè Mazinagou, Jean Mianikpo Sogbedji, Atchala N’gbendema

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 180-193
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4206

The sustainable improvement of maize productivity and smallholders’ incomes to contribute to food security is the objective of this study carried out over two consecutive years (2020 and 2021) at the University of Lomé Agronomic Experiment Station. The experiment was set up in a split-plot design, composed of sixteen (16) treatments in three (03) replicates each. Four varieties: Ikenné (V1) Tzee (V2), Sotubaka (V3) and Sammaz 52 (V4) and four fertilization schemes: 0 kgha-1 (F0); 200 kgha-1 of NPK: 15-15-15+100 kgha-1 of urea 46%N (F1); 6 000 kgha-1 of chicken dungs (F2) and 6 000 kgha-1 of small ruminant dungs (F3) were the studied factors. Maize grain yields were determined, and an economic analysis was done. The results analysis showed that varieties and fertilization schemes significantly affected maize grain yields. Sotubaka (V3) was the most productive variety during the two years of experiment. The average yield obtained under V3 (3.56±0.65 t ha-1) was higher than those of Ikenné, Tzee and Sammaz 52 varieties respectively by 20, 57 and 5%. The average yield recorded under F2 was higher than those of F0, F1 and F3 by 54, 3 and 17% respectively. On a 2-year average basis, the application of 200 kgha-1 of NPK: 15-15-15+100 kgha-1 of urea 46%N (F1) gave the highest maize grain yields under V1 (3.43±0.13 t ha-1) and V2 (2.60±0.15 t ha-1); while the highest maize grain yields under V3 (4.29±0.12 t ha-1) and V4 (3.95±0.11 t ha-1) were obtained with the supply of  6 000 kgha-1 of chicken dungs (F2). On the same 2-year average basis, the highest profits were obtained under Ikenné (343 000 FCFA ha-1=US$512.46) and Tzee (177 000 FCFA ha-1=US$ 264.45) with the application of F1. For Sotubaka (480 000 FCFA ha-1=US$717.14) and Sammaz 52 (415 000 FCFA ha-1=US$ 620.03), the highest profit was obtained with the application of F2. For successful maize cultivation, it was advisable to use F1 for Ikenne and Tzee varieties and F2 for Sotubaka and Sammaz 52 varieties.

##### Influence of Apical Cutting on Growth Parameters of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Two Agro-climatic Zones of Niger

Kaka Kiari Boukar Kéllou, Abdourazak Alio Moussa, Illo Souley Mahaman Hamissou, Mamadou Chetima Maina Boukar, Moussa Massaoudou, Atta Sanoussi, Bakasso Yacoubou, Mahamane Ali

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 194-202
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4207

Improving roselle yield and production, particularly in light of climate change and variability, remains challenging and constantly urges for the modification of agro-techniques. One such modification that has proven successful in boosting yield of many vegetable crops in recent years is the adaptation of the apex cutting technique, especially in unfavorable agro-climatic circumstances where traditional methods are not plausible. This study was to assess the effect of cutting the main stem apical bud on roselle growth parameters and determine the optimal stage of apex cutting. The experiment was conducted in a split plot experimental device in randomized blocks with four (4) repetitions at Tara/Gaya and Tarna/Maradi. Two factors were studied, six (6) roselle ecotypes and four (4) levels of apex cuttings viz. C0 (uncunt plants as a control); C1 (20 days after sowing (DAS)); C2 (30 DAS); and C3 (40 DAS). The findings showed that apex cutting significantly affected all the morphological parameters evaluated. Apex cutting significantly reduced the total plant height and the number of primary branches per plant. Furthermore, significant increases were observed in the diameter and the number of secondary branches per plant for the six ecotypes. Moreover, the optimal time-point for obtaining the best collar diameter and secondary branches per plant was found to be between cut 1 (20 DAS) and cut 2 (30 DAS).

##### Genetic Analysis of Morpho-metric Traits and Correlations of Yield Parameters in Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr)

D. O. Ibirinde, A. O. Kolawole, C. O. Aremu, K. Balogun, M. N. Iliya, J. Angyu

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 203-219
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4208

Top crosses comprising 2 testers and 8 lines were made in the screen house using Line × Tester model. Observations were made on days to flowering, pod maturity, harvest, pods per plant, branching pattern, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and yield/ha; crude protein, crude fiber, carbohydrate, moisture, ash and oil, as well as trypsin, tannins and phytate. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance and the means separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT), at 5% probability level. Genetic component analysis was carried out on the traits using Analysis of Genetic Design (AGD-R) package, to determine heritability, General Combining Ability (GCA) and Specific Combining Abilities (SCA). Results of the study revealed that, positive GCA values were recorded by TGM954 (0.01), TGM120 (0.07), TGM553 (0.70), TGM555 (0.58), TGM574 (0.19), TGM584 (0.14) and TGX1904-6F (0.12) for 100 seed weight; TGM954 (76.83) and TGM584 (12.54) for seed yield. Generally, TGM954 was a better general combiner than TGM951, because it combined well with other varieties for yield and yield-related traits. High heritability estimates were recorded for 100 seed weight (84.10%), number of branches (86.61%), days to flowering (91.69%), pods per pod (88.48%) and seed yield (86.07%). It can be concluded, that, crosses using Line × Tester model is encouraged for trait transfer and enhancement of soybean seed yield.

##### Assessment of Maize (Zea mays) Genotypes for Seed Metrics, Agronomic Performance, Yield and Nutritional Content in the Southern Savanna Agro-ecological Zone of Nigeria (Wukari as Case Study)

D. O. Ibirinde, N. M. Iliya, S. Bitrus

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 220-227
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4209

Maize is ranked as one of the cereal crops with high yield potential globally and may be considered very important for countries like Nigeria, where there is an increasing demand for food to meet the demand of its teeming population. Five varieties of maize (Sammaz 52, M1217, M1155, Oba 98 and Oba super II) obtained seed companies and mostly grown in Wukari were evaluated during the 2020/2021 cropping seasons for yield, agronomic performance, seed metrics and nutritional quality at the Research and Teaching Farm of the Federal University Wukari, Taraba State. Having four replications, the experiment was set up using Randomized complete Block Design (RCBD). Obtained data on agronomic characters, yield and nutrient qualities revealed significant differences among the varieties for days to tasseling, silking, grain yield, nutritional content, number of nodes, ear height (cm), hundred seed weight (g), number of seed rows, seed length at P>0.05. Height at matirity showed significant difference, with Oba98 having the highest (195.25 cm) value. M1217 recorded superiority (24.95g) over the other varieties for 100 seed weight. Laboratory Analysis was conducted to determine the essential amino acid and nutritional content of the five maize varieties. There was a significant variation in the crude protein content of the five varieties with the SAMMAZ52 having the highest value (13.14%). Oba 98 recorded highest essential amino acid such as Methionine (2.39), Lysine (2.33) and Tryptophan (1.43) over the other varieties assessed.

##### Assessment of Germination Percentage and Seedling Vigour in Selected Maize Genotypes in Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

D. O. Ibirinde, N. M. Iliya, S. S. Ayangaor

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 228-237
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4210

Assessment of seedling vigour in six selected maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes was evaluated in the screen house of the Department of Crop Production and Protection, at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University Wukari, Taraba State during the 2020 and 2021 cropping seasons. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design (CRD) and replicated thrice. Seed vigour indicators were number of sprouting, mean emergence time, germination percentage, seedling fresh weight (g), seedling dry weight (g), seedling root length (cm), seedling vigour index I and seedling vigour index II. The seed matrices measured were hundred seed weight (g), seed width (mm), seed length and seed thickness (mm). From the results obtained, the strong, positive and significant (1.00) relationship between the 100 seed weight and seedling germination percentage indicated that, maize germination is mostly determined by its size.  Further, the most effective high vigour indicators are root length, seedling length, germination percentage, mean emergence time and number of sprouting at 4 days. However, M1155 recorded the highest seedling (72.33), with the highest corresponding germination percentage of 98%.

##### Combining Ability, Heritability and Genetic Variance in Tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum) Genotypes

D. O. Ibirinde, L. Oladokun, A. O. Kolawole, C. O. Aremu, M. N. Iliya

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 238-248
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4211

A study was conducted to determine gene actions controlling yield and other qualitative traits of tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum) as well as combining ability among selected genotypes at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso during the 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. Five tomato genotypes and ten offspring (F1), obtained from a 5×5 diallel crosses were sown in plots, arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design, with three replicates. Data were collected on plant height (PH), number of cluster per plant, days to 50% flowering (50%FL), individual fruit weight (IFW), number of fruits per plant (NFPP), pericarp thickness (PT), number of lobe (NOL), number of seeds per fruit (NSPF), fruit lycopene (LYCOP), ascorbic acid content (ASCO) and fruit yield (YH). Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (P=0.05). Also, diallel analysis was carried out to determine the General and Specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA) of the parents and hybrids respectively, following the Griffing (1956) Method II for partial diallel analysis. Results obtained showed significant differences among the genotypes, for all the characters measured. Also, non-additive and additive gene actions were responsible for the genetic control of the traits. The ratio of GCA and SCA were < 1 for Plant height, CPPL, 50%FL, IFW, NFPP, PT, NOL, NSPF, LYCOP, ASCO and YH thus revealing the preponderance of non-additive gene action. GCA analysis suggested that parents Uc-op and Ibadan-local were the best general combiners while, SCA performance suggested that FDT4 X FDT2 was the best specific combiner. Broad sense heritability for NOL, NSPF, LYCOP, and ASCO were above 90%, indicating that they were highly heritable while narrow sense heritability of NOL was very high (55% and 83% respectively), PH, NSPF, NFPPL and LYCOP were moderate ranging between 20% and 38%. It is concluded that high yielding tomato hybrids, best combiners and a guide line for the assessment of relative parents breeding potential of the parents could be established following diallel technique.

##### Relationship between Photosynthetic Capacity and Carbohydrate Content of Mangifera indica cv. Harumanis in Response to Girdling and Paclobutrazol

Sebrina Shahniza Saiin, Sabrina Abdul Razak, Noor Hanis Aifaa Yusoff, Noor Fadilah Mohd Bakri

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 262-269
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4214

Girdling and paclobutrazol have been related with the effects on the photosynthetic capacity and carbohydrate content of plants. The physiological changes caused by these methods distress the growth and development of plants in general. A field experiment was carried out from August 2021 to June 2022 on 5 years of open-field Mangifera indica cv. Harumanis trees grown at Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor. The objective of this experiment was to understand the relationship between girdling, paclobutrazol application, combined methods and untreated trees on plant photosynthetic performances and carbohydrate content in the leaves. The treatments were performed on 1st December 2021, and the measurements of leaf gas exchanges and carbohydrate content were performed 4th weeks later on fully expanded leaves shoot, experiencing similar light exposure. In the study, the combination of girdling and paclobutrazol application resulted in a significant decrease in photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) but significantly increase in intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and carbohydrate content.

##### Efficiency of Some Herbicides and Fungicides on Management of Common Bean Damping-off and Root-rot Diseases

Rodina Ahmed Hassan, Hala A. M. Eldakar

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 270-279
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4215

The three tested herbicides and fungicides caused significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani the causal of common bean damping-off and root-rot diseases compared with control treatment. This inhibition was gradually increased by increasing the concentration of the tested herbicides and fungicides. Moreover, the fungus F. solani was greatly affected by the tested herbicides and fungicides than the fungus R. solani. Furthermore, the tested fungicides were more efficient than the herbicides in this regard. There was significant decrease in both damping-off and root-rot severity with significant increase in the survived plants due to the treatment with the tested herbicides and fungicides. No damping-off and root-rot were recorded in case the tested herbicides, fungicides and non-infested soil. Highest percentages of damping-off, root-rot and lowest survived plant were recorded in case of soil infested with any of the two pathogens. In addition, the combination between the tested herbicides and fungicides with any of the tested pathogens resulted in significant reduction to damping-off and root-rot severity with significant increase in the survived plants compared to plants grown in soil infested with any of the two tested pathogens and did not receive such a treatment. The treatment with any of the tested herbicides and fungicides and grown in soil infested with any of the two pathogens resulted in remarkable increase in the total phenolic compounds compared to the values of plants grown in soil infested with any of the two causal fungi (control plants). Gradual increase in the values of total phenolic compounds was occurred by increasing the time of inoculation with the pathogens and the highest increase in the total phenolic compounds was occurred by the tested fungicides compared with the tested herbicides. The percentages of the estimated nitrogen and protein content in common bean green seeds were increased due to the treatment with the tested herbicides and fungicides compared with the green seeds of plants grown in soil infested with any of both pathogens. The tested fungicides caused considerable increase in the percentages of total nitrogen and protein when compared to the tested herbicides.

##### Mushroom Cultivation for Increasing Income and Sustainable Development of Small and Marginal Farmers

Satish Chand, Bihari Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 11-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i430148

A mushroom is the fleshy and spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus and belongs to the class Basidiomycetes. Mushroom cultivation is a low-cost, high-return activity that has proven to be an additional source of income. Because the vegetarian population in our country's urban centers has adopted mushrooms in their diet due to their nutritious worth, mushroom producers in nearby rural areas have an excellent market for selling their products quickly and at a reasonable price. As a result, the mushroom benefits both producers and consumers, earning it the title of super food.  Mushroom production can also be used to empower rural people, offer additional income for agricultural families, and address the issue of rural people's nutritional needs. Rural unemployed people are the most productive workforce in the economy, necessitating efforts to enhance and strengthen their socioeconomic condition. Mushroom farming all year can produce revenue from the sale of spawns as well as the sale of fresh mushrooms in a sustainable manner by using farm by-products as a raw material.

##### Socio, Economic and Cultural Importance of Betel Vine (Piper betle L.) Cultivation: Its Present Status and Future Perspectives

Nivedita Panda, Arpita Panda

Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, Volume 9, Issue 4, Page 249-257
DOI: 10.9734/ajahr/2022/v9i4212

The present study aims to investigate the Socio, Economic and Cultural importance of Betel Vine Cultivation. Betel vine is the most important and useful asexually propagated cash crop having various cultivars. The betel leaf has many chemical constituents that have many important industrial applications. The leaves are found to contain a terpinene, P-cymene, carvacrol, chavicol and its derivatives, allyl catechol, eugenol, estragole, oxalic acid, malic acid and amino acids. The economic status of betel leaves in the worldwide market depends on the physical nature of the end products. Betel leaf and its products in different forms such as powder, liquid, capsules, etc., are highly remarkable due to its various medicinal applications. The properties like antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, antidiabetic, anticancer activity, etc. justify its bioprospecting for future green medicine.